Flower identification (Singapore, April)

Flower identification (Singapore, April)

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I saw some flowers growing by the roadside today, and was wondering about the species of this plant.

The plant also appeared to be fruiting, and it produced small fruits that formed small clusters.

This is called "Red Powder Puff" or botanically Calliandra haematocephala. See the images (from the Wikipedia article):

What you identified as the fruit appears to be the buds:

Some more information can be found here.

Some species of barrel cactus reach over 1 metre (3.3 ft) in height at maturity, and have been known to reach 3 metres (9.8 ft) in some regions. The ribs are numerous and pronounced, and the spines are long and can range in color from yellow to tan to red, depending on the age of the plant and the species. Flowers appear at the top of the plant only after many years. The barrel cactus can live to be over 100 years old.

Barrel cactus buds typically start to bloom in April with a bright yellow or orange flower. Pink and red varieties also exist but occur less frequently. The flowers only appear on the very top of the plant. As the flowers begin to wilt in early May, they may change color. A late summer desert rainstorm can produce a late bloom, as shown in the photograph below of the orange-flowered variety (it bloomed two days after a hurricane in mid-August and continued to bloom through the end of September).

Fruit Edit

As the flowers wilt away, small pineapple-shaped greenish fruit may form. Left untouched, the fruit has been known to last a full calendar year. The fruit can be easily removed but is not usually consumed because it is fairly dry and bitter.

Native Americans collected the fruit as emergency food during extreme drought conditions.

The Seri people distinguished three species of barrel cactus: [1]

  • Saguaro barrel cactus — Ferocactus cylindraceus
  • Siml caacöl (big barrel cactus), siml cöquicöt (killer barrel cactus) — Ferocactus emoryi
  • Siml áa (true barrel cactus) — Ferocactus wislizeni

In Mexico the flesh of the barrel cactus is candied and eaten as a treat.

Barrel cactus are cultivated by plant nurseries as an ornamental plant. They are considered easy to grow and relatively fast growing. They may produce round offshoots.

Barrel cactus can fall over because they grow based on sun orientation. They usually grow towards the south to prevent surface tissue sunburn, giving the name "compass cactus." [2]

Flower identification (Singapore, April) - Biology

Plants of the Mustard Family
(Previously known as Cruciferae )

Mustard flowers are easy to recognize. If you have a radish or turnip blooming in the garden, then take a close look at the blossoms. When identifying flower parts, it is best to start on the outside of the flower and work towards the middle like this: sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil(s).

On the outside of the mustard flower you will see 4 sepals, usually green. There are also 4 petals, typically arranged like either the letters "X" or "H". Inside the flower you will see 6 stamens: 4 tall and 2 short. You can remember that the stamens are the male part of the flower because they always "stay men". The female part is the pistil, found at the very center of the flower.

For the purposes of the Mustard family, all you need to remember is "4 petals with 6 stamens--4 tall and 2 short". If you find that combination in a flower, then you know it is a member of the Mustard family. Worldwide there are 375 genera and 3200 species. About 55 genera are found in North America.

All species of Mustard are edible, although some taste better than others. In other words, it doesn't matter which species of mustard you find. As long as you have correctly identified it as a member of the Mustard family, then you can safely try it and see if you want it in your salad or not.

Most members of the Mustard family are weedy species with short lifecycles like the radish. Look for them in disturbed soils such as a garden or construction site, where the ground is exposed to rapid drying by the sun and wind. The Mustards sprout quickly and grow fast, flowering and setting seed early in the season before all moisture is lost from the ground.

Also be sure to look closely at a Mustard seedpod, called a silicle or silique, meaning a pod where the outside walls fall away leaving the translucent interior partition intact. They come in many shapes and sizes, as you can see in the illustration, but they always form a raceme on the flower stalk, which looks something like a spiral staircase for the little people. With practice you can easily recognize the mustards by their seed stalks alone, and from fifty feet away. Identification by the seed stalks is helpful since many of the flowers are too small to peer inside and count the stamens without a good hand lens.

Interestingly, six of our common vegetables--cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and kale--were all bred from a single species of mustard, Brassica oleracea . Plant breeders developed the starch-storage abilities of different parts of the plant to come up with each unique vegetable. Commercial mustard is usually made from the seeds of the black mustard ( B. nigra ) mixed with vinegar.

As you become more familiar with this family, you will begin to notice patterns in the taste and smell of the plants. While each species has its own unique taste and smell, you will soon discover an underlying pattern of mustardness. You will be able to recognize likely members of the family simply by crushing the leaves and smelling them.

Flower identification (Singapore, April) - Biology

Jepson Herbarium Public Programs

The Jepson Herbarium is the epicenter of research and education on the native and naturalized plants of California. Each year, the Herbarium provides educational opportunities for a broad audience of professional and amateur botanists. The program serves as a liaison between the scientific community and the public, a role we continue to be dedicated to as we enter our 28th year of public programs.

The 2021 Jepson workshops series will be different from past years. Due to the pandemic, we will be offering virtual workshops for the first half of the year and those are announced below. We hope to offer a second series of in-person workshops after June 30, 2021 and, if we are permitted to operate them, those workshops will be announced in the spring.

We hope you will join us for another great year of learning about the flora of California!

We also hope our online resources will be helpful in your study of the flora.
Jepson eFlora
Jepson Videos
Consortium of California Herbaria

The fee for each workshop is listed with the course description.

Members have priority registration from December 1 - 6, 2020.

To join the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium, please click here.

Schedule of 2021 Virtual Workshops

February 13, 2021 Fiddleheads! Become fern fluent
Workshop full: wait list only

February 27, 2021 Life in the Carboniferous swamps
Workshop full: wait list only -->

April 22 and 29 with self-guided field trips on April 24th and 25th Exploring the ecosystems of the San Francisco Bay Area
Workshop full: wait list only

January 30, 2021
Brent D. Mishler, Kirsten Fisher, and Jenna Ekwealor, plus guest appearances by other members of the research group
UC Berkeley and Marin Municipal Water District Field Site

This workshop will take a different perspective than many workshops. Instead of being broadly comparative among lineages at one level, we will look at multiple levels of biological organization in one lineage, the desiccation-tolerant moss genus Syntrichia, the subject of an integrated National Science Foundation grant ( Short presentations will be given on different aspects of our project, including genomics, population genetics, reproductive biology, physiology, systematics, and ecosystem function in the biotic soil crust. These will be interspersed with activities and discussion, and will give participants an unusually holistic picture of biology and how seemingly different subdisciplines interact. Literature and other materials for use in the workshop will be mailed to participants ahead of time.

--> Meals:
--> Transportation: Not provided. Personal vehicle or carpool required for field trip.
--> Hiking: Easy
--> Start/End: Saturday, 1 pm &ndash 5 pm.

Course Fee: $275/$305
--> Course Fee: The registration fees for this workshop will be paid for by the 3D Moss NSF grant, so there is no charge to participants (but registration is required).

Fiddleheads! Become fern fluent &mdash Workshop is full! Wait list only.

February 13, 2021
Carl Rothfels and Cindy Looy
UC Berkeley and Marin Municipal Water District Field Site

Become fern fluent! This course will be an introduction to the ferns of the world, with a focus on species that can be observed in the wild in California. We will learn the basics of fern morphology (What is an indusium? Is a frond just a leaf by another name?), fern ecology (including the spectacular desert ferns of the southwest), and fern evolution (Are ferns “ancient” plants? What are their closest living relatives? Why did all the Cheilanthes in California just become Myriopteris?). We’ll end the course with a virtual tour of the major groups of ferns and their representatives here in California. The goal is to turn all course participants into skilled fern-observers: when next you see a fern you’ll understand what it is, what it does, how it does it, and where it came from, evolutionarily-speaking. Some keying of fern specimens will also be involved.

--> Meals:
--> Transportation: Not provided. Personal vehicle or carpool required for field trip.
--> Hiking: Easy
--> Start/End: Saturday, 1 pm &ndash 5 pm.

Course Fee: $275/$305
--> Course Fee: $75 general public and $50 for members of the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium.

Life in the Carboniferous swamps Workshop is full! Wait list only. -->

February 27, 2021
Cindy Looy , Ivo Duijnstee, Ben Muddiman and Carl Rothfels
UC Berkeley and Marin Municipal Water District Field Site

The Carboniferous (359-299 million years ago) is an exceptionally interesting period in Earth’s history. Geographically, ecologically, atmospherically, and climatically, the world was unlike anything we see today. What are now Europe and America formed the Euramerican floral realm, an equatorial located landmass with little topography. In the later parts of the Carboniferous, the Euramerican region was periodically covered by widespread peat swamps. These swamps were dominated by tall lycopod trees, giant horsetail relatives, tree ferns and seed ferns, making for an alien looking, Dr. Seuss-like landscape. In this workshop you will get acquainted with the plants that inhabited these wetlands and the unusual conditions that facilitated them, and you will learn how we reconstruct these plants and their communities in incredible detail.

--> Meals:
--> Transportation: Not provided. Personal vehicle or carpool required for field trip.
--> Hiking: Easy
--> Start/End: Saturday, 1 pm &ndash 5 pm.

Course Fee: $275/$305
--> Course Fee: $75 general public and $50 for members of the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium.

Angiosperm morphology for plant identification &mdash Workshop is full! Wait list only.

March 6, 2021
Bruce G. Baldwin and Susan Fawcett
UC Berkeley and Marin Municipal Water District Field Site

Join us for this beginner's guide to botany. This course welcomes those who would like to expand their knowledge of plants. Students will learn the basic concepts of plant morphology and the terminology needed to identify plants using botanical keys like those in the second edition of The Jepson Manual and the Jepson eFlora. We will cover the entire plant body, including stems, roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits!

--> Meals:
--> Transportation: Not provided. Personal vehicle or carpool required for field trip.
--> Hiking: Easy
--> Start/End: Saturday, 1 pm &ndash 5 pm.

Course Fee: $275/$305
--> Course Fee: $75 general public and $50 for members of the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium.

Exploring the ecosystems of the San Francisco Bay Area &mdash Workshop is full! Wait list only.

April 22 and 29, 2021
with self-guided field trips on April 24th and 25th
Paul V.A. Fine
UC Berkeley and Marin Municipal Water District Field Site

This workshop will take participants on a journey through four ecosystems of the San Francisco Bay Area. Beginning with a virtual tour of each location, Dr. Fine will provide insights into the local species, their adaptations, and the communities they live in. Over the weekend, participants will venture out on their own to Samuel P. Taylor State Park, Marin Municipal Water District, and Mount Diablo State Park where they will take guided hikes with trail maps and narrative text written for numbered stops. Specific observations will be recorded along the way. To conclude, participants will regroup on Zoom where Dr. Fine will answer specific questions and talk in depth about the importance of soil types, habitat specialization, and local conservation efforts.

--> Meals:
--> Transportation: Not provided. Personal vehicle or carpool required for field trip.
--> Hiking: Easy
--> Start/End: Two Thursdays, 6:30 pm &ndash 8 pm. and self-guided field trips on April 24th and 25th

Course Fee: $275/$305
--> Course Fee: $75 general public and $50 for members of the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium.

California floristics, taxonomy, and phylogenetics &mdash Workshop is full! Wait list only.

June 5, 2021
Bruce G. Baldwin
UC Berkeley and Marin Municipal Water District Field Site

Floristic studies provide a detailed inventory of the plants occurring in a particular area. Phylogenetics, the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms, and taxonomy, the science of classifying organisms, come together in reference guides such as The Jepson Manual and the online Jepson eFlora. This workshop will review recent and upcoming taxonomic changes in the Jepson eFlora, the phylogenetic basis for such revisions, and describe evidence for recent changes, as well as a more general discussion of how California plant taxonomy has evolved with the rise of phylogenetic tools and approaches.

--> Meals:
--> Transportation: Not provided. Personal vehicle or carpool required for field trip.
--> Hiking: Easy
--> Start/End: Saturday, 1 pm &ndash 5 pm.

Course Fee: $275/$305
--> Course Fee: $75 general public and $50 for members of the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium.

Bruce G. Baldwin is Curator of the Jepson Herbarium and Professor in the Department of Integrative Biology at UC Berkeley. Bruce received his Ph.D. in Botany at UC Davis in 1989. His research emphasizes systematics (including the use of biosystematic, molecular, and phylogenetic methods) of Californian vascular-plant groups, especially our native Compositae. He is Convening Editor of the Jepson Flora Project, which has produced The Jepson Desert Manual (2002), the second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012), and the online Jepson eFlora since he arrived at Berkeley in 1994.

Ivo Duijnstee is an adjunct assistant professor in Integrative Biology at UC Berkeley. With a background in plant ecology, marine ecology, and a Ph.D. in geosciences studying the paleoecology of foraminifera, Ivo's research interests have successfully dodged straightforward classification. For the time being, aspects of various interests have now coalesced in Paleozoic plant ecology, ecophysiology and evolution— using plant fossils, plant fossil data sets and experimental paleobotany to answer questions about the developing newfangled terrestrial biosphere in the Paleozoic and its relations with the Earth System.

Jenna Ekwealor is a Biodiversity Genomics Postdoctoral Fellow at the Smithsonian Institution Data Science Lab. She earned her Ph.D. from UC Berkeley in 2020 where she studied eco-physiology of dryland mosses in the genus Syntrichia. Her research interests also include the influence of life history on population dynamics and adaptive evolution to extreme environments.

Susan Fawcett is a research botanist at the University and Jepson Herbaria and a faculty member at the University of Michigan Biological Station, where she teaches field botany and botanical illustration. Her current research is focused on phylogenomics, taxonomy, and historical biogeography of the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Susan recently received her doctoral degree from the University of Vermont where she worked in the Barrington/Sundue Lab.

Paul V. A. Fine is a professor at UC Berkeley and has been in the Department of Integrative Biology since 2007. His research investigates the origin and maintenance of Amazonian rain forest tree diversity. Originally from Ann Arbor, Michigan, he headed west for undergraduate studies at UC Berkeley, and went on to receive his Ph.D. from the University of Utah. Read about his popular course "California Ecosystems" here.

Kirsten Fisher is a professor of Biological Sciences at Cal State LA, where she has been a faculty member since 2008. She earned her Ph.D. from UC Berkeley in 2004 and her research interests revolve around the molecular ecology of a desert moss species, Syntrichia caninervis. She is the curator of the CSLA Herbarium and a Research Associate at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden.

Cindy Looy is a plant ecologist who tumbled down the rabbit hole of deep time. As a notorious subject hopper her interests are all over the place. However, most of her research is on the response of plants and plant communities to major environmental changes in the Late Paleozoic and their evolutionary consequences. Although she likes almost all things green, even after they stopped being green 100s of millions of years ago, she has a soft spot for conifers and lycopods.

Brent D. Mishler is Director of the University and Jepson Herbaria as well as a professor in the Department of Integrative Biology, where he teaches courses in phylogenetics, plant diversity, and island biology. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1984. His research interests are in the systematics, evolution, and ecology of bryophytes, especially the diverse moss genus Syntrichia, as well as in the phylogeny of green plants, spatial analysis of biodiversity, and theory of systematics.

Ben Muddiman is a graduate student in the Looy lab. He interested in paleoecology and evolution, particularly the 450 million year history of fire and its role in the evolution of plants. He is also interested in the dispersal of plant communities in response to past periods of significant climate change, and related impacts on plant evolution.


With spring in full bloom, it’s a wonderful opportunity to teach young ones about nature and the cycle from seedling to growing flowers and plants. Here are a number of charming books that teach some of the beginning concepts of gardening. Appropriate for the preschool years through kindergarten, these delightful books are bound to inspire some home gardening projects and budding green thumbs!

Planting a Rainbow This brightly illustrated book is one of my children’s favorite stories. It teaches the basic concepts of planting seeds, bulbs, and plants. The fun part is the walk through all the colors of the rainbow, with various plants and flowers as examples of those colors.

Planting the Wild Garden Told in more of a story format, this book starts with characters planting seeds. However, those seeds begin to get dispersed, and we’re treated to explanations on how various agents of nature, including wind, rain, and animals, take those seeds into new and unexpected places.

Project Garden Here’s a hands-on guide for gardening with year-round options for all the different types of plants, flowers, and more that can be nurtured month-by-month. Written by a certified Master Gardener, it can be a great kick-start to some fun-filled gardening projects with your kids.

Oh Say Can You Seed Learning about plants and concepts like photosynthesis doesn’t have to be daunting – especially when your guide is the Cat in the Hat, with assistants Thing 1 and Thing 2! Going about it as only Dr. Seuss can, Oh Say Can You Seed gives a whimsical approach to learning about plants and pollination.

The Tiny Seed Fans of Eric Carle’s chunky and colorful art style will love this nature inspired gem which walks you through the lifecycle of a flower from tiny seed. Included with the book is an actual seed packet that’s plantable so your child can see the story of the book with their own eyes.

How to Grow a Seed This book follows the path of an acorn that turns into a mighty oak tree. Because of the young ages that the book targets, it provides simple explanations of scientific concepts and eases the child in with beautiful watercolor illustrations.

Zinnia’s Flower Garden Zinnia, with help from dog and cat, nurtures her plants and watches them grow. Helping with the educational content, around the borders of the pages are actual pictures of flowers and seeds, as well as other identification of nature such as clouds and insects.

Growing Vegetable Soup This hearty book embodies the concept of “farm to table” (or in this case, soup pot) in a way that’s easily understood for pre-schoolers. The whole process is discussed, from planting the seeds and growing the plants, to picking the vegetables and cooking them.

One Bean This easy-to-understand book zooms in and just focuses its attention on one single bean. Here, we’re treated to the narrative of one bean being planted and watched, through its growth cycle, until it’s ready to be eaten.

A Tree Is a Plant Here’s a wondrous book about trees, explaining that like the smaller plants and flowers that children see, a tree is also a plant – just a really big one. This book looks at the tree’s lifecycle through the four seasons for an overall view.

Flower identification (Singapore, April) - Biology

Search over 160,000 plants. Members can chat with other gardeners in our 144 active forums, identify plants, pets, birds, and butterflies.

The middle of summer arrives. Do you find your hanging baskets looking floppy and sloppy?

The middle of summer arrives. Do you find your hanging baskets looking floppy and sloppy?

For today only, Amazon Prime members can up their garden game and save hundreds on top of the line power tools and outdoor appliances.

For today only, Amazon Prime members can up their garden game and save hundreds on top of the line power tools and outdoor appliances.

June 21 through the 27th is Pollinator Week and hummingbirds are wonderful pollinators. There are a number of items on sale during the 2021 Amazon Prime Days that will help you encourage them to your garden while saving cash.

June 21 through the 27th is Pollinator Week and hummingbirds are wonderful pollinators. There are a number of items on sale during the 2021 Amazon Prime Days that will help you encourage them to your garden while saving cash.

Generate some buzz for pollinators during National Pollinator Week.

Generate some buzz for pollinators during National Pollinator Week.

Amazon Prime Day starts today and there are may bargains for gardeners. Be sure to check them out.

Amazon Prime Day starts today and there are may bargains for gardeners. Be sure to check them out.

Easy Perennial Flowers for.

Flower Garden Designs: Three-.

Growing Wildflowers | Selecting.

Spring-Flowering Bulbs to Plant in.

Having a Vine Time with Perennial.

The Best Fall Flowers for Your.

Helping the Bees and the.

The Good Side of Goldenrod

Flower Meanings: The Language of.

Caring for Perennial Flowers


Shasta Daisies

2 of 34


Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: To 20 inches tall

Where It Grows: Sunny or shady landscape, lawn, or garden areas

Appearance: This garden weed has light green leaves that look like clover and cup-shape yellow flowers in summer and fall.

Control: Mulch garden areas in spring to prevent weeds. Pull oxalis weeds by hand or spray weeds with a postemergence herbicide in spring or fall.

Test Garden Tip: The leaves of oxalis are edible in small quantities and have a sharp, sour taste. However, plants should not be eaten if they have been treated with pesticide. The plant can be harmful if eaten in large amounts.


Wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius) is an invasive shrub in the same genus as raspberries and blackberries. Wineberry creates spiny, inpenetrable thickets that reduce an area’s value for wildlife habitat and recreation. It was introduced to North America in the 1890s as breeding stock for raspberries. It was found invading natural areas by the 1970s, and it is currently recorded in most states east of the Mississippi River and in Alabama (USDA PLANTS Database). Wineberry replaces native vegetation, including native edible berry shrubs. It is differentiated from other berry-producing canes by the reddish appearance of its stems (caused by a dense coat of red hairs), silvery underleaf surfaces, and bright red berries. Management can be obtained through mechanical, chemical, or combination of control methods.

Biology and Habitat

Wineberry is a close relative of other raspberries and blackberries. It grows in long shoots called canes up to six feet long, which can re-root at the tips when they touch the ground. Wineberry canes grow in two stages in the first year they form a vegetative cane, and in the second year the cane becomes woody and produces lateral branches, flowers, and fruit (technically drupes, an aggregation of single seeded drupelets, but for clarity the term fruit will be used). Wineberries are perennial while the canes each live two years, the plant produces new canes every year. Leaves are produced in April, flowers in May, and fruit from late June to August leaves drop in late November. Wineberry does not need pollen from another individual to set seed, and therefore may reproduce more easily than natives like saw-toothed blackberry (Foss 2005).

Wineberry has a wide range of tolerance for light, soil type, and moisture level, and is hardy to USDA Zone 5 (annual minimum temperatures to -20F). While it is most productive in edge and wasteland habitats, it can be found in most habitats that exist in New York (Innes 2009), including forested habitats. Wineberry seeds are spread by animals, and seeds dropped on the forest floor can germinate when falling trees provide light to the forest floor. Once established, wineberry can persist indefinitely and reproduce once further disturbance occurs (Innis, 2005).

Wineberry canes. (Photo: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut,


Wineberry is related to other raspberries and blackberries, and shares characteristics of both. Like raspberries, wineberry has silvery underleaves, a fruit core that remains on the stem when the ripe fruit is picked, and thorns. It is differentiated from other raspberry species by the fine red hairs that grow densely on its stems (and flowers) causing a reddish hue to the plant. Wineberry fruit is vibrantly red when ripe, which helps differentiate it from native black raspberries and blackberries it also has three leaflets per leaf rather than five, which separates it from many blackberry species. Unique to wineberry is its small, greenish, hairy flowers with white petals and the way its fruit remain covered by sepals (greenish petal-like structures) until almost ripe.

Wineberry stem hairs. (Photo: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Top and bottom of wineberry leaves. (Photo: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut. Wineberry hairs. (Photo: Ansel Oomen,

There is quite a range of native and introduced Rubus species in New York the wikibook Flora of New York has an excellent, easy to navigate identification website which includes wineberry. The more common species easily confused with wineberry are shown below. For a more complete look at the Rubus genus, the Flora of Michigan has an excellent online key.

Similar Species

Rubus odoratus (purple-flowering raspberry or thimbleberry) has maple-shaped leaves that are soft and hairy leaves not silvery flowers pinkish-purple. Fruit is flatter and fuzzier than a raspberry, forming more of a cup shape.

Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) has whitish underleaves, but flowers hold their white petals out from the center of the flower, and fruit are usually purple-black (occasionally golden). Stems are green with a bluish cast that rubs off and have sparse, fairly robust thorns. Canes tip-root.

Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus, Rubus strigosus and many hybrids) have whitish underleaves and white petals, with red fruit, like wineberries. Stems are not covered in red hairs, are more lightly armed than black raspberry, and lack the bluish-white cast on their stems. Flowers might have a few hairs, but are not densely hairy like those of wineberry.

New York has several species of native blackberries, all of which have green rather than silvery underleaves and solid-cored fruit (mostly black when ripe). Some have five to seven leaflets. Identification to species can be difficult. While the skin on some species is reddish or purplish, none are covered in reddish hairs like wineberry, and many are heavily armored with thorns.

Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) leaves and canes. (Photo: D. Cameron, from Go Botany website:

Evergreen blackberry (Rubus laciniatus) is an invasive blackberry. It has highly dissected leaves and black fruit with a solid core.

Evergreen blackberry canes and leaves. (Photo: Joseph M. DiTomaso, UC Davis. Evergreen blackberry leaves and unripened fruit. (Photo by Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California – Davis,

Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) is also an invasive blackberry. It has stout, heavily armed but not hairy stems that grow up to 20 feet, tip roots like wineberry does, and produced large, sweet, dark-purple to black solid-cored fruit. It is the only blackberry with a whitish or grey-green underleaf, but usually has five leaflets instead of three, which along with its pinkish-white flowers and black fruit differentiate it from wineberry.

Himalayan Blackberry canes. (Photo: Joeph M. DiTomaso, UC Davis.

Ecological Impacts

Wineberry can form dense, impenetrable thickets in natural areas, making the habitat unusable for some species and creating hiding places for others. It is more aggressive than many of the native raspberry and blackberry species, and has a wider range of tolerance for light, soil type, and moisture. Its establishment in forest understories as disturbance occurs can lead to its spread even in mature forests. There has been no study to date documenting its specific impact on native species.

Wineberry plants choking understory of second growth forest. (Photo: John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy.


Wineberry control is more straightforward than control of many other invasive plants in New York. While any root fragments may start a new plant, wineberry does not have a vigorous underground storage structure this makes it easier to control than, for instance, Japanese knotweed or lesser celandine. It is also susceptible to common pesticides.

For any invasive species control project, it is important to have a plan for the location before control begins. Disturbance without replanting often results in the return of either the same invasive species or other invasives to the site have a restoration plan in place before starting invasive species removal.

Mechanical control

Hand pulling wineberry or digging with a spading fork can be a successful strategy in small patches or where repeat visits are not costly, particularly if native species are planted where the ground has been disturbed. Return visits for a few years will be necessary to remove new plants that sprout from root fragments. As wineberry is armed with thorns and hairs, minimizing exposed skin during mechanical control is advisable.

Chemical control

Wineberry can be controlled using systemic herbicides such as glyphosate or triclopyr (Bargeron et. al., 2003). When using pesticides, be aware that many pesticides are prohibited within 100’ of water, as they are toxic to aquatic life and/or fail to break down in water. Some formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides are permitted for use near water, but the most common formulation (Roundup) is not permitted for use near water due to an adjuvant (chemical that helps the glyphosate stick to plant surfaces) that is toxic in aquatic habitats. Triclopyr also has both aquatic-permitted and prohibited formulations choose carefully based on the characteristics of your treatment area. Always follow instructions on the label of any pesticide, and remember that New York has its own regulations for pesticides, both for the entire state and for specific regions like Long Island that have special environmental considerations. For New York State regulations, visit the DEC website:

Foliar application and cut-stump application are both recommended in various fact sheets (Massachusetts Audubon, Innes 2009, bugwoodwiki), but no experiments have been published on the relative efficacy of pesticides or application methods on wineberry (2015).

New York Distribution Map

This map shows confirmed observations (green points) submitted to the NYS Invasive Species Database. Absence of data does not necessarily mean absence of the species at that site, but that it has not been reported there. For more information, please visit iMapInvasives.

60 Best Types of Flowers You Should Have in Your Garden

Part of the joy of gardening is learning about new plants and adding them to your garden. And there's always space for one more plant! To keep your garden looking amazing throughout the year, make sure to mix it up: Plant annuals for quick pops of color and perennials, which come back year after year, as well as spring-flowering bulbs, evergreens and flowering shrubs. There are even plants that bloom in winter before the snow has melted to provide color during the darkest days of the year! Variety in your plantings not only provides habitat and food for pollinators such as bees, hummingbirds and butterflies, but you'll also enjoy more color for a longer period of time.

Before purchasing a plant, make sure to read the plant tag or description. When you're planting perennials or shrubs, choose those that will survive winters in your USDA Hardiness zone (find yours here). And pay attention to how much sun or shade a plant needs. Sun lovers need sun and won't bloom in shade shade lovers will sizzle in the afternoon sun.

Whether you're just daydreaming of spring or are planning to order all your spring flowers and plants soon, read on for the best flowers for any garden, big or small, country or formal.

International plant systems biology

This EMBO Workshop on international Plant Systems Biology (iPSB) is the central gathering of plant systems biology researchers from across the world. Climate change poses unique challenges for how to feed and power humanity without further degrading the environment. Plant science therefore is a key discipline in meeting the challenge of adapting food and energy production and society to the consequences of climate change. Towards the understanding of complex genotype-phenotype relationships, systems biology approaches, i.e. global omics and quantitative modelling, need to complement classic genetics and cell biology. Building on the success of the first iPSB in Roscoff in 2018 and with having to postpone our plans for Venice, Italy in September 2020, we are now delighted to be able to offer the second iPSB virtually. There will be invited talks, talks selected from abstract submissions, an online poster session and time to network at virtual tables.

As systems biology has many facets it is important to bring together researchers taking a variety of approaches, in order to mesh these directions towards a deeper understanding of biological systems. Each of our six workshop sessions is accessible to non-experts to ensure cross-fertilisation since there are strong but not yet fully realised links between researchers across systems biology. We particularly encourage applications from early career researchers and the size of the meeting offers a tremendous chance for interaction, building a future for this exciting discipline. Around half of the oral presentations will be selected from abstracts.

  • Session 1 - Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Session 2 - Metabolic Networks
  • Session 3 - Synthetic Biology
  • Session 4 - From Single Cell Genomics to Tissue Modeling
  • Session 5 - Evolutionary Networks and Systems
  • Session 6 - Integrative Systems Genomics

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