Is there any software/website where I can browse for extinct species? It must be based on real animals that are now extinct. It may be in animated versions.
fileunderwater's answer is probably the most accurate. I just wanted to add that, depending on your needs wikipedia > lists of extinct species can be a decent source of information.
You can search for species that are "Extinct" or "Extinct in the wild" at the IUCN red list website (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). That list currently includes 903 species, but some of the assessments might be obsolete (see annotations). From that list, you can click and get some basic information about each species.
Also note that many countries have regional Red Lists, where you can find information about regionally extinct species (i.e. species that have gone extinct in a particular country). For instance, 209 species are labelled "reginally extinct" in Sweden (http://artfakta.artdatabanken.se/, site only in Swedish), most of them insects, while still being present in other parts of the world.
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.
Extinction, in biology, the dying out or extermination of a species. Extinction occurs when species are diminished because of environmental forces (habitat fragmentation, global change, natural disaster, overexploitation of species for human use) or because of evolutionary changes in their members (genetic inbreeding, poor reproduction, decline in population numbers).
Rates of extinction vary widely. For example, during the last 100,000 years of the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago), some 40 percent of the existing genera of large mammals in Africa and more than 70 percent in North America, South America, and Australia went extinct. Ecologists estimate that the present-day extinction rate is 1,000 to 10,000 times the background extinction rate (between one and five species per year) because of deforestation, habitat loss, overhunting, pollution, climate change, and other human activities—the sum total of which will likely result in the loss of between 30 and 50 percent of extant species by the middle of the 21st century.
Online Research Tools
In our research efforts involving both online and offline species data we have combined what we learn in the resulting pages of this site. There are a myriad of online databases and meta-searches and it can be quite overwhelming. This is one of the reasons we created this site, by combining all useful available information for each species (including the best photographs, video, etc.) on each species’ home page we found that only then could we get a relatively complete picture of that species as is currently known. Each species has the following information available: taxonomic data (WoRMS, ITIS), photo/video/sound ID data, general physical attributes, unique characteristics, world range & habitat information (including direct access to Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) data), feeding and reproductive behavior, warnings and comments, IUCN RedList and CITES listing data, GBIF Global Biodiversity Data, SIRIS biblio search, Molecular/genetic data database searches, references, etc. Each species home page is also dynamic and new online resources are easily added as they arise and evolve. By combining the above as well as conservation information and resources, marine life news and our forums, we hope that one can get a complete sense of any completed marine species.
AlgaeBase – database listing species data on the world’s algae.
ARKive – The ARKive Project is a gathering together the very best films and photographs of the world’s species into one centralized digital library, to create a unique audio-visual record of life on Earth.
[email protected] – PubMed Central is a digital archive of life sciences journal literature, developed and managed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
BioOne – bioscience research journals: “For its users—students, researchers, and unaffiliated individuals—BioOne provides a unique aggregation of high-impact bioscience research journals, featuring timely content on a wide-array of today’s most pressing topics, including global warming, stem cell research, ecological and biodiversity conservation. Complementing this content is an agile new platform launched in January 2009 that allows for easy navigation to content both within and outside the BioOne aggregation, as well as researcher-designed toolbars with valuable title, article, and reference-linking tools.”
CITES-listed species database – CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between Governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Around 25,000 plant species and 5,000 animal species listed, in the following proportions: 1) Appendix I: about 600 animal species and 300 plant species 2) Appendix II: about 1,400 animal species and 25,000 plant species and 3) Appendix III: about 270 animal species and 30 plant species.
Crustacean Society – to advance the study of all aspects of the biology of the Crustacea by promoting the exchange and dissemination of information throughout the world.
Encyclopedia of Life – “Our knowledge of the many life-forms on Earth – of animals, plants, fungi, protists and bacteria – is scattered around the world in books, journals, databases, websites, specimen collections, and in the minds of people everywhere. Imagine what it would mean if this information could be gathered together and made available to everyone – anywhere – at a moment’s notice. This dream is becoming a reality through the Encyclopedia of Life. Our Vision: Global access to knowledge about life on Earth. Our Mission: To increase awareness and understanding of living nature through an Encyclopedia of Life that gathers, generates, and shares knowledge in an open, freely accessible and trusted digital resource.”
ESA Online Journals – Ecological Society of America Journals. ESA publishes a suite of publications, from peer-reviewed journals to newsletters, fact sheets and teaching resources.
FishBase – 32,200 Fish Species, 295,600 Common names, 51,100 Pictures, 45,500 References, 1,900 Collaborators.
GBIF – The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) was established by governments in 2001 to encourage free and open access to biodiversity data, via the Internet. Through a global network of 57 countries and 47 organizations, GBIF promotes and facilitates the mobilization, access, discovery and use of information about the occurrence of organisms over time and across the planet.
Genome Browser (Ensembl) – Ensembl is a joint project between EMBL – EBI and the Sanger Institute to develop a software system which produces and maintains automatic annotation on metazoan genomes.
Global Invasive Species databse – The Global Invasive Species Database was developed by the IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) as part of the global initiative on invasive species led by the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP). It provides global information on invasive alien species to agencies, resource managers, decision-makers, and interested individuals. The database focuses on invasive species that threaten biodiversity and covers all taxonomic groups from micro-organisms to animals and plants. Species information is supplied by expert contributors from around the world and includes species’ biology, ecology, native and alien range, references, contacts, links and images.
Google Scholar – Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research. Use Google Scholar to find articles from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles available across the web.
Hexacorals – Biogeoinformatics of hexacorallia (corals, sea anemones, and their allies): interfacing geospatial, taxonomic, and environmental data for a group of marine invertebrates.
IOC OceanPortal – Ocean Portal is a high-level directory of Ocean Data and Information related web sites produced by the IOC/IODE Marine Data Training Team. Its objective is to help scientists and other ocean experts in locating such data & information.
IUCN Red List – The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient) and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. Near Threatened).
Marine Genomics Project – the web-based interface to bioinformatics data management and data analysis tools. The site has been developed by the bioinformatics group at the DB2E dept. of the Medical University of South Carolina for the Marine Genomics Consortium at the Hollings Marine Lab in Charleston, SC. Both public and species-curators can browse all data within the Marine Genomics website. All species-specific data is accessible via the species links to the right of the page. Curators have permissions to curate and edit their species data, resume/CV information, publications they wish to make available on MG as well as addition/deletion of related projects that might have significance to the community.
Marine Species Identification Portal – The Marine Species Identification Portal is an initiative of ETI BioInformatics in the KeyToNature programme (a project in the EC e-contentPlus Programme). This website provides open access to scientific information on marine species including identification keys to support the scientific community in activities such bio-monitoring programs, and to provide students and other interested parties with general information on marine biodiversity. This portal unlocks information on 9900 marine species and 5553 higher taxa, most of which with a description and one or more illustrations. A total of 7941 taxa are keyed out in 52 identification keys. Furthermore, 18850 synonyms plus 2782 vernacular names in English and 8389 names in 25 other languages facilitate searching.
NCBI – National Center for Biotechnology Information: “As a national resource for molecular biology information, NCBI’s mission is to develop new information technologies to aid in the understanding of fundamental molecular and genetic processes that control health and disease. More specifically, the NCBI has been charged with creating automated systems for storing and analyzing knowledge about molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics facilitating the use of such databases and software by the research and medical community coordinating efforts to gather biotechnology information both nationally and internationally and performing research into advanced methods of computer-based information processing for analyzing the structure and function of biologically important molecules.”
Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) – “OBIS is an evolving strategic alliance of people and organizations sharing a vision to make marine biogeographic data, from all over the world, freely available over the World Wide Web. OBIS is tailored towards global awareness of our oceans and global contribution to knowledge about our oceans. Thus, it is extremely important that OBIS maintains its status as an ‘open-access’ database. OBIS plans to make all tools on the website available for everyone to use: the database exclusively uses open source software, so all of the programming code is available to the public.”
ReefBase – world’s premier online information system on coral reefs, and provides information services to coral reef professionals involved in management, research, monitoring, conservation and education.
sciBASE – aggregates and integrates major bibliographic databases from third party publishers to give its subscribers convenient, digital access to the world’s scientific information.
ScienceDirect – world’s largest electronic collection of science, technology and medicine full text and bibliographic information.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography / UC San Diego Online Library – databases, journals, resources and collections, etc. of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography.
Sea Slug Forum – everything you ever wanted to know about sea slugs (nudibranchs, bubble-shells, sea hares, and others) including behavior, anatomy, aquarium FAQs and associated marine animals and plants.
SIRIS – Smithsonian Institution Research Information System: “Search over 7.4 million records with 568,100 images, video and sound files, electronic journals and other resources from the Smithsonian’s museums, archives & libraries.”
SpringerLink – one of the world’s leading online information services for scientific, technical, and medical (STM) books and journals. SpringerLink is a preferred data source for researchers in academic and corporate institutions and other vital knowledge centers.
Tree of Life Web Project – a collaborative effort of biologists from around the world. On more than 3000 World Wide Web pages, the project provides information about the diversity of organisms on Earth, their evolutionary history (phylogeny), and characteristics.
UCSB Resources – marine and aquatic science reference guide and resources at the University of California in Santa Barbara.
USGS: Oceans – Marine Realms Information Bank an online distributed digital geolibrary for the USGS Coastal and marine Geology Program.
Web of Science platform – a platform consisting of several literature search databases designed to support scientific and scholarly research. There are databases with a subject focus like Medline, BIOSIS Citation Index, and Zoological Record databases with a document type focus like Derwent Innovations Index (patents) and Data Citation Index (datasets and data studies) and databases highlighting content from regions around the world.
“Web of Science Core Collection is our premier resource on the platform and includes over 20,000 peer-reviewed, high-quality scholarly journals published worldwide (including Open Access journals) over 190,000 conference proceedings and over 90,000 editorially selected books.”
Wikipedia – the online encyclopedia written collaboratively by contributors from around the world. The site is a wiki, which means that anyone can edit articles, simply by clicking on the edit this page link.
WoRMS – World Register of Marine Species: “The aim of a World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms, including information on synonymy. While highest priority goes to valid names, other names in use are included so that this register can serve as a guide to interpret taxonomic literature. The content of WoRMS is controlled by taxonomic experts, not by database managers. WoRMS has an editorial management system where each taxonomic group is represented by an expert who has the authority over the content, and is responsible for controlling the quality of the information. Each of these main taxonomic editors can invite several specialists of smaller groups within their area of responsibility to join them.”
Zetoc – provides access to the British Library’s Electronic Table of Contents of around 20,000 current journals and around 16,000 conference proceedings published per year. The database covers 1993 to date, and is updated on a daily basis.
We hope you find Perfect Marine Solutions as useful as we do and if you find we are missing useful online research tools, please let us know.
Evolution and classification
Shark are an ancient group of animals, and have remained virtually unchanged for the last 200 million years. The basic form of a shark consist of two dorsel fins, flexible jaws able to thrust forward during feeding and a powerful tail for propulsion. The retention of similat body shapes from prehistoric to modern sharks suggests that their morphological and anatomical characteristics make them one of the most successful species on this planet, perfectly adapted to their environment and therefor highly evolved.
Sharks are classified into eight primary orders:
- Hexanchiformes (Cow Sharks)
- Squaliformes (Dogfish Sharks)
- Pristiophoriformes (Saw Sharks)
- Squatiniformes (Angel Sharks)
- Heterodontiformes (Bullhead Sharks)
- Orectolobiformes (Carpet Sharks)
- Carcharhiniformes (Ground Sharks)
- Lamniformes (Mackerel Sharks)
Above : Size comparison of a Great White Shark tooth and the fossilised tooth of a Megalodon Shark
The Great White shark was first described by Carolus Linnaeus (a Swedish botanist who established a general system for naming and classifying all living things) in 1758. He named the species Squalus Carcharias. Ichthyologist Andrew Smith later renamed the species Carcharodon Carharias, which is derived from the Greek karcharos (meaning ‘sharp’ or ‘sharpen’) and ‘odous‘, which refers to teeth. The species name Carcharias, also from the Greek, means ‘point’ in Australia the Great White is commonly known as the ‘white pointer’. Other names given to the Great White are White shark, blue pointer, white death, witdoodshaai (Afrikaans) and Weisshai (German).
The Great White is a member of the the order Lamniformes, which contains fifteen different species, of which the Lamnidae or Mackelel Shark sub-order includes five species: Great White, Longfin Mako, Shortfin Mako, Porbeagle Shark and the Mackerel Shark.
The members of the Lomnidae family are typically torpedo-shaped. Interestingly, they don’t have nictriting membranes – found in many other shark species – which protect the eye at the point of contact or during predation. Instead, they are able to roll their eyes completely back into their sockets, thereby offering a higher degree of protection than a nictitating membrane would. The Lamnidae typically also have jaws that extend well behind the eye, strong caudel keels and possess five relatively large gill slits for maximum oxygen absorption.
Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) species are threatened species that have few or no close relatives on the tree of life. EDGE species are usually extremely distinct in the way they look, live and behave as well as in their genetic make-up. If they disappear, there will be nothing like them left on the planet.
How we identify priority EDGE species
We score every species in a particular taxonomic group (e.g. mammals or amphibians) according to the amount of unique evolutionary history it represents (Evolutionary Distinctiveness, or ED), and its conservation status (Global Endangerment, or GE). We then combine these scores to give each species an EDGE score. Those with high ED and GE get the highest EDGE scores and are our priority species.
Some species are more distinct than others because they represent a larger amount of unique evolution. Species like the tuatara have no close relatives and have been evolving independently for many millions of years. Others, like the brown rat, originated relatively recently and have many close relatives.
One way to quantify the uniqueness of a species is to calculate its Evolutionary Distinctiveness (ED) using an evolutionary tree, or phylogeny. A phylogeny is a representation of the evolutionary relationships between a set of species. The phylogenies we use to calculate ED scores are calibrated in such a way that the branches of the ‘tree’ represent the millions of years of evolution that has taken place since the origin of the group. When calculating ED scores, each species on the phylogeny receives a ‘fair proportion’ of the branches that connect them to all other species. If the branches connecting a species to the rest of the tree are shared with fewer species, it receives a larger the proportion of the millions of years represented by each branch and therefore a higher ED score.
Hypothetical evolutionary tree
In the example phylogeny above, species A has a higher ED score than either species B or C. This is because species A is alone on a long branch of the tree of life, whereas species B and C are on short twigs, surrounded by close relatives. If species A were to go extinct, there would be no similar species left on the planet and a disproportionate amount of unique evolutionary history would be lost forever. At the EDGE of Existence programme we would prioritise species A, as long as resources for conservation are limited and each species is equally threatened.
The world’s most Evolutionarily Distinct mammal is the Aardvark. The most distinct amphibian is the Mexican burrowing toad, the most distinct bird is the Oilbird, and the tuatara is the most Evolutionarily Distinct reptile.
Globally Endangered (GE) scores for each species are based on the IUCN Red List Categories (Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near Threatened and Least Concern). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the world’s most comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of plant and animal species. Species which are Critically Endangered receive a higher score than less threatened species, which in turn, receive a higher score than those not currently in danger of extinction.
IUCN Red List categories
The ED and GE scores are combined to produce an overall EDGE score for each species. While we can currently only calculate EDGE scores for species with IUCN Red List assessments that are not Data Deficient, research is ongoing to develop a method for calculating EDGE scores that can incorporate species for which we lack IUCN Red List data.
Read the original EDGE mammals scientific paper to find out more about how EDGE scores are calculated.
Distribution of ED and EDGE scores for amphibians, birds, corals and mammals
EDGE species are species that have an above median ED score and are also threatened with extinction (Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List). There are currently over 550 EDGE mammal species (
10% of all species) and over 900 EDGE amphibian species (
13% of all species). Potential EDGE species are those with high ED scores but whose conservation status is unclear. We highlight the top 25 EDGE corals and top 100 EDGE amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles as our priority EDGE species. These represent the most unique species for which conservation action is of utmost importance.
Number of EDGE Species and priority species for each taxonomic group
We are continuously developing the scientific foundation of our conservation work. Click here to read more about EDGE’s current research activities.
This paper presents data regarding conservation biology of Chionodoxa lochiae and Scilla morrisii two threatened endemic plants of Cyprus, which are included as priority species in Annex II of the Habitats Directive. The population size and geographical distribution of the species were monitored for three years. C. lochiae was recorded in ten locations and S. morrisii was recorded in five locations. C. lochiae occurs in Pinus forests with/without Quercus alnifolia understory or in forest margins and riparian vegetation with Platanus orientalis. Favorable habitat of S. morrisii is the understory of Quercus infectoria stands and the Pistacia terebinthus-Quercus coccifera-Styrax officinalis shrubs. The distribution pattern of the species seems to follow habitat availability. Fecundity and Relative Reproductive Success of C. lochiae were stable and low, while in S. morrisii were constantly high. The lack of pollinators seems to be the main cause of the low sexual reproduction of C. lochiae. The germination strategy for both species is dependent on temperature. Some of the seeds are dormant and dormancy is broken by nitrates. The investigation of certain aspects of the biology of the two species yielded the information needed to identify the critical aspects affecting their survival and to propose sound conservation measures.
Human beings and endangered species
Roughly 99 percent of threatened species are at risk because of human activities alone. By the early 21st century it could be said that human beings (Homo sapiens) are the greatest threat to biodiversity. The principal threats to species in the wild are:
Although some of these hazards occur naturally, most are caused by human beings and their economic and cultural activities. The most pervasive of these threats is habitat loss and degradation—that is, the large-scale conversion of land in previously undisturbed areas driven by the growing demand for commercial agriculture, logging, and infrastructure development. Because the rates of loss are highest in some of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth, a perpetual battle is waged to manage destructive activities there while limiting the impact that such restrictions may have on the well-being of local communities. The relative importance of each threat differs within and among taxa. So far, incidental mortality from ecological disturbance, temporary or limited human disturbance, and persecution have caused limited reductions in the total number of species however, these phenomena can be serious for some susceptible groups. In addition, global warming has emerged as a widespread threat, and much research is being conducted to identify its potential effects on specific species, populations, and ecosystems.
Conflicts between human activities and conservation are at the root of many of these phenomena. Such controversies are often highly politicized and widely publicized in the global press and through social media. For example, habitat loss and species loss have resulted from the unregulated exploitation of coltan (the rare ore for tantalum used in consumer electronics products such as mobile phones and computers) in Kahuzi-Beiga National Park, one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s premier forest parks. The park is also home to much of the population of the threatened Eastern Lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri). Mining has increased gorilla mortality by reducing the animal’s food resources and leading many people displaced by the mining to kill gorillas for their meat. In addition, the mountain gorilla (G. beringei beringei), a close relative of the Eastern Lowland gorilla, is also at risk of extinction. However, authorities cite poaching, disease, and crossfire between warring political groups in the vicinity of Virunga National Park as the primary sources of its population decline.
Another example of a widely publicized wildlife controversy involves the relatively recent declines in amphibian populations. Known to be important global indicators of environmental health, amphibians have experienced some of the most serious population declines to date of all groups that have been assessed globally through the IUCN Red List process (see below). Amphibians (a group that includes salamanders, frogs, toads, and caecilians [wormlike amphibians]), being particularly sensitive to environmental changes, are severely threatened by habitat destruction, pollution, the spread of a disease called amphibian chytridiomycosis, and climate change.
Beyond these notable examples, many of the world’s birds are also at risk. The populations of some bird species (such as some albatrosses, petrels, and penguins) are declining because of longline fishing, whereas those of others (such as certain cranes, rails, parrots, pheasants, and pigeons) have become victims of habitat destruction. On many Pacific islands, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) has wreaked havoc on many bird populations.
Many fishes and other forms of aquatic and marine life are also threatened. Among them are long-lived species that have life history strategies requiring many years to reach sexual maturity. As a result, they are particularly susceptible to exploitation. The meat and fins of many sharks, rays, chimaeras, and whales fetch high prices in many parts of the world, which has resulted in the unsustainable harvest of several of those species.
Moreover, freshwater habitats worldwide are progressively threatened by pollution from industry, agriculture, and human settlements. Additional threats to freshwater ecosystems include introduced invasive species (such as the sea lamprey [Petromyzon marinus] in the Great Lakes), the canalization of rivers (such as in the streams that empty into the Everglades in Florida), and the overharvesting of freshwater species (as in the case of the extinct Yunnan box turtle [Cuora yunnanensis] in China). While an estimated 45,000 described species rely on freshwater habitats, it is important to note that humans are also seriously affected by the degradation of freshwater species and ecosystems.
Against this backdrop of threats related to urban expansion and food production, the unsustainable harvest of animal and plant products for traditional medicine and the pet trade is a growing concern in many parts of the world. These activities have implications for local ecosystems and habitats by exacerbating population declines through overharvesting. In addition, they have cross-border repercussions in terms of trade and illegal trafficking.
No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died
Known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalised population
Facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the Wild
Facing a high risk of extinction in the Wild
Facing a high risk of extinction in the Wild
Likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future
Does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Near Threatened
Park ranger clearing away wire snare animal traps. These are usually set to catch smaller forest mammals such as duikers and rodents, but also unintentionally trap gorillas from time to time.
The war in Rwanda in the early 1990s and years of civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of Congo have sent waves of refugees into the region around the Virunga Mountains parks that are home to more than half the mountain gorilla population, leading to poaching and destruction of gorilla habitat. And parts of the park inhabited by gorillas have been taken over by rebels, making survey and conservation work difficult and dangerous. Since 1996, 140 Virunga rangers have been killed in the line of duty.
As humans have moved into areas near mountain gorillas, they have cleared land for agriculture and livestock. Even land within protected areas is not safe from clearing&mdashin 2004, for example, illegal settlers cleared 3,700 acres of gorilla forest in Virunga National Park.
Gorillas that come into contact with humans can be vulnerable to human diseases, which gorillas experience in more severe forms. Mountain gorillas can even die from the common cold. However, studies have found that mountain gorillas that are regularly habituated with researchers and tourists have survived better than unvisited gorillas they benefit from the greater protection available in those areas and from regular monitoring. Increased survival is also largely due to better veterinary care of sick and injured gorillas.
Inside gorilla habitat in Virunga National Park, people harvest charcoal for use as a fuel source in cooking and heating. This charcoal production&mdashan illegal, multi-million dollar industry&mdashhas destroyed gorilla habitat.
There is little to no direct targeting of mountain gorillas for bushmeat or pet trade, but they can be caught and harmed by snares set for other animals.
Plant Systematics is a fundamental field of Biological Sciences, and its knowledge is essential not only for scientists involved in various disciplines of Botany but also for other scientists. In recent decades, the use of new methods and techniques in taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography has led to important scientific discoveries and large-scale revisions of classical views. Additionally, many new plant species are described on an annual basis, proving that continuous and thorough scientific research has much more to offer in this area. Finally, there is an increased scientific interest in conservation biology, as many plant species and their habitats are in immediate threat leading to population loss or even extinction.
This Special Issue is open to articles on taxonomy and phylogeny of vascular plants, phytogeography, plant distribution, and plant conservation.
Dr. Ioannis Bazos
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(also extinctive inhibition), in physiology, a form of internal conditioned inhibition in accordance with Pavlovian theory.
The simplest form of extinction is the progressive weakening of external manifestations of the orienting reflex when the subject is repeatedly exposed to an extraneous stimulus. A more complex form of extinction is the gradual decrease in magnitude of a conditioned reflex in the absence of reinforcement by an unconditioned stimulus. The time required for any given degree of extinction, as well as its degree, depends on various factors, including the modality of the conditional signal, the type of unconditioned reflex (for example, the alimentary or defensive types), the type of registrable reaction (such as motor or secretory reactions), and the extent to which the conditioned reflex has become established. It is presumed that extinction is based on inhibitory activity in the conductive links by which signals are transmitted from the sensory (afferent) pathways to the effector (efferent) systems of the brain.