Information

What kind of Caiman is this and what is on it's nose?

What kind of Caiman is this and what is on it's nose?



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I was able to snap a good picture in the Manù Parque Nacional in Peru. When I reviewed the pictures in more details I noticed something on it's nose, that resemble insects. What are those? Is it a known symbiosis? What do they gain?
Also our guide called it a "white river caiman", is this accurate?
And lastly: It seems one teeth is sticking out on top of it's mouth. By looking at the shape of the jaw it looks pretty natural. Is this common for caimans?
Picture for reference: I took the picture around here: Nose only: Photo taken around May 2018.


What is a Brainstem Hemorrhage? (with pictures)

Brainstem hemorrhage is a very serious condition in which bleeding occurs in the stem region of the brain. This puts pressure on and damages the structures in this area. Brainstem hemorrhage can have a variety of different causes including trauma, stroke, or pre-existing problems with blood vessels. Once bleeding begins, the hemorrhage usually progresses rapidly and the prognosis is poor.

The brain stem is a critical structure for maintaining neurological health, consciousness, and the basic systems necessary for life. It is located at the base of the brain where it connects with the spinal cord, and it contains three structures - the mid-brain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls the basic functions of life, such as breathing and heart rate, as well as mediating most of the messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Also located in this region of the brain is the reticular activation system, which is important for consciousness. If this system is damaged, a person will become and remain unconscious.

There a few different potential causes for a brainstem hemorrhage. Severe or repetitive head trauma to the brainstem region can cause hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic strokes are a kind of stroke that results in bleeding in the brain these can have causes as diverse as hypertension, cocaine abuse, or aneurysms. This bleeding can occur in multiple regions of the brain, including the brainstem.

Another contributing factor for this type of hemorrhage is a congenital, or present at birth, disorder called arteriovenous malformation, in which the blood vessels in the brain stem are abnormal and tangled together in a complex web. Fistulas, abnormal connecting pathways, connect the arteries and veins directly, disrupting the normal blood flow process in which oxygen-rich blood travels from the heart through the arteries and oxygen-depleted blood returns to the heart through the veins. If an arteriovenous malformation ruptures, stroke and hemorrhage can occur. There are surgical and non-surgical treatments available for arteriovenous malformation if it is diagnosed in time.

The most common symptom of a brainstem hemorrhage is rapid decrease in consciousness leading to coma. Loss of motor control in any or all limbs or loss of control over the movement of the eyes are other common symptoms. Usually, the patient's condition degenerates rapidly.

Hemorrhage can occur in many different areas of the brain and the structures surrounding it. Patients suffering many of these can make a full or partial recovery both without medical intervention strategies including conservative management, or with surgery. Unfortunately, brainstem hemorrhage is extremely likely to lead to permanent and severe brain damage, coma, or death. Patients with small hemorrhages may be successfully treated with surgery to release the blood and reduce pressure on the brain.


TYPE I HYPERSENSITIVITY

Type I hypersensitivity reaction is commonly called an allergic or immediate hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction is always rapid and can occur within minutes of exposure to an antigen. Type I hypersensitivity reactions are initiated by the interactions between an IgE antibody and a multivalent antigen.

(IgE antibodies are class of antibodies that produces in allergic reactions and multivalent antigen is an antigen molecule with more than one identical epitope per molecule)

Type I hypersensitive reactions can induce by a special type of antigen refer to as allergens which have all the hallmarks of the normal humoral response. Thus, an allergen induces a humoral antibody response, resulting in a generation of antibody secreting plasma cells and memory cells.

Common allergens for type I hypersensitivity are plant pollen, foods (nuts, eggs, seafood, etc.), certain drugs (penicillin, Salicylates, local anaesthetics, dust mites, etc.

Type I reaction can occur in two forms:

The precise component of why some people are more prone to Type 1 hypersensitivity is unclear. However, it has been shown that such individuals preferentially produce more lymphocytes or TH2 cells which in turn favor the change of class to I gE.

1. Anaphylaxis

It is an acute and potentially fatal immediate hypersensitivity reaction. The time of onset of symptoms depends on the level of hypersensitivity and the site of exposure to the antigen. Generally, it affects skin, respiratory tract and cardiovascular system. Plasma cell secretes IgE in response to allergen-specific TH4 cells. This class of antibody binds with high affinity to Fc receptor on the surface of tissue mast cells and basophils. Binding of IgE to the mast cells is also known as sensitization. IgE-coated mast cells can activate on repeat antigen encounter. The primary cellular component in this hypersensitivity are the mast cell, eosinophils, and basophil.

a schematic diagram showing type I hypersensitivity reaction

Further. anaphylaxis has two phases:

Immediate phase

This phase is characterized by degranulation and release of pharmacologically active mediators within minutes of re-exposure to the same antigen. Histamine is the principal biogenic amine that causes rapid vascular and smooth muscle reactions.

Late phase

This phase begins to develop 4–6 hours after the immediate phase reaction and can persist for 1–2 days. It is identified by the infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes to the site of reaction.

2. Atopy

Unlike anaphylaxis, atopy is periodic and nonfatal immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Atopic individuals produce high levels of IgE in response to allergens as compared to normal individuals who do not. An example of atopic reactions is bronchial asthma. Atopic hypersensitivity does not transfer through lymphoid cells but it can transfer by serum.

Symptoms

Some of the common symptoms are skin rashes, tingling around the mouth, diarrhoea, etc., It can affect various organs of the body including skin (Urticaria and Eczema), eyes (conjunctivitis) and nose (rhinorrhea.

Generally, it took 10-30 minutes for the symptoms to appear and occasionally it may take up to 10-12 hours.

Diagnosis

Its diagnosis may include skin tests like puncture and intradermal. In addition, measurement of total IgE and IgE antibodies, specific against suspected allergens, also performed.

Treatment

Antihistamines are used for the treatment of type I hypersensitivity. These medications block histamine receptors on cell membrane surfaces.

Treatment for anaphylactic symptoms is injection with epinephrine, a potent neurotransmitter and hormone that effectively halts the immune response.

IgG blockers are also used to treat type I hypersensitivity.


CaImAn an open source tool for scalable calcium imaging data analysis

Advances in fluorescence microscopy enable monitoring larger brain areas in-vivo with finer time resolution. The resulting data rates require reproducible analysis pipelines that are reliable, fully automated, and scalable to datasets generated over the course of months. We present CaImAn, an open-source library for calcium imaging data analysis. CaImAn provides automatic and scalable methods to address problems common to pre-processing, including motion correction, neural activity identification, and registration across different sessions of data collection. It does this while requiring minimal user intervention, with good scalability on computers ranging from laptops to high-performance computing clusters. CaImAn is suitable for two-photon and one-photon imaging, and also enables real-time analysis on streaming data. To benchmark the performance of CaImAn we collected and combined a corpus of manual annotations from multiple labelers on nine mouse two-photon datasets. We demonstrate that CaImAn achieves near-human performance in detecting locations of active neurons.

Keywords: calcium imaging data analysis mouse neuroscience one-photon open source software two-photon zebrafish.

Conflict of interest statement

AG, JF, PG, JK, BB, SK, JT, FN, JG, PZ, BK, DT, DC, EP No competing interests declared


Animal Diversity Web

Caiman crocodilus , the spectacled, common, or brown caiman, is a crocodilian native to northern South America, Central America, and certain parts of the Caribbean. They are native to the following countries: Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad, Tobago, and Venezuela. They have been introduced into Florida, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Crocodile Specialist Group, 1996 Kohler, 2003 Ross, 1989 University of Southern Mississippi, 2009)

Habitat

Spectacled caimans are found in freshwater habitats as well as some salt water habitats. Rivers and wetlands, usually slow moving water, are preferred. They are found in both deep and shallow water, as they only need enough depth to submerge their bodies. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Britton, 2009a Grana Raffucci, 2007 Ojasti, 1996)

  • Habitat Regions
  • tropical
  • terrestrial
  • saltwater or marine
  • freshwater
  • Aquatic Biomes
  • lakes and ponds
  • rivers and streams
  • coastal
  • brackish water
  • Wetlands
  • marsh
  • swamp
  • bog
  • Other Habitat Features
  • riparian
  • estuarine
  • Range elevation 800 (high) m 2624.67 (high) ft

Physical Description

Spectacled caimans are small to medium-sized crocodilians generally 1.5 to 2.1 meters in length. Historically, maximum reported length was 3 m. At current levels of exploitation, few specimens exceed 2.5 m in length. Females are smaller than males. Average adults are a dull olive to nearly black in color with variable yellow or black crossbands. They have long snouts and their fourth mandibular tooth is not visible from the outside of their closed jaw. Juveniles are yellowish in color with darker bands and spots. A feature that helps to distinguish Caiman crocodilus from other, sympatric crocodilians is the presence of a bony infra-orbital bridge between the eyes. Subspecies vary in color and skull size. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Britton, 2009a Grana Raffucci, 2007 Kohler, 2003)

  • Other Physical Features
  • ectothermic
  • heterothermic
  • bilateral symmetry
  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • male larger
  • Range mass 7 to 58 kg 15.42 to 127.75 lb
  • Average mass 40 kg 88.11 lb
  • Range length 1.5 to 3 m 4.92 to 9.84 ft
  • Average length 2 m 6.56 ft

Development

Some weeks after courtship and copulation, with internal fertilization, females lay their oval, hard-shelled eggs in a newly made mound of leaf litter and other vegetation. Once the eggs are laid, the female will cover the nest. Females, and sometimes males, guard their eggs against nest predators. Temperature influences sex determination during incubation. An average nest temperature of 30 degrees C will produce mostly females and 34 degrees will produce mostly males. After an incubation period of 65 to 104 days the babies will hatch out of their eggs and move to the nearest water, with some help from their parents. Once the juveniles have hatched, they will stay near their parents for about 1.5 years. Juveniles then grow to adult size at around 1.2 to 1.4 meters in length. Once juveniles reach minimum adult size, they are able to reproduce. If they survive long enough, they can continue to grow until reaching a size that may exceed 2.4 meters. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Britton, 2009a Grana Raffucci, 2007 Kohler, 2003 Ojasti, 1996)

Reproduction

Mating typically occurs in the wet season from April to August, depending on local climatic conditions. Males can breed with multiple females and females can breed with multiple males. Courtship behavior involves prospective mates swimming together, rubbing backs, bellowing, touching snouts, circling each other, and bubble-blowing. Both sexes use these behaviors to attract their mates. After a female mates with a male she will build a nest in the males territory. There, the male and female will guard the nest, eggs, young, once they are hatched. (Britton, 2009a Britton, 2009b Grana Raffucci, 2007 Kohler, 2003 Mertz, 2009 Ojasti, 1996)

Spectacled caimans reach sexual maturity at sizes of about 1.2 meters for females and 1.4 meters for males, corresponding to from 4 to 7 years old. Social status affects growth rate and reproduction. Some younger, smaller caimans will be unable to mate because of social stress because of the presence of larger, more dominant caimans. Courtship and copulation occurs between May and August. Eggs are laid from July to November, depending on local climatic conditions. Females lay from 10 to 30 eggs. Incubation usually requires between 65 and 104 days. Sex is determined by temperature in the nest about midway through incubation. The decomposing vegetation in the nest, which may be a meter high and 2 meters in diameter, may help retain temperatures at the proper level. After hatching, the parents may excavate the juveniles from the nest and help them out of the eggshell. Once emerged, juveniles stay near their parents for approximately 1.5 years, receiving some protection from predators. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Britton, 2009a Britton, 2009b Grana Raffucci, 2007 Kohler, 2003 Ojasti, 1996)

  • Key Reproductive Features
  • iteroparous
  • seasonal breeding
  • gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
  • sexual
  • oviparous
  • Breeding interval Spectacled caimans breed for about four months during the wet season each year.
  • Breeding season Spectacled caimans breed from May through August.
  • Range number of offspring 10 to 40
  • Average number of offspring 22
  • Range gestation period 65 to 104 days
  • Average time to independence 1.5 years
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female) 4 to 7 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female) 6 years
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male) 4 to 7 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male) 6 years

After copulation, females, sometimes assisted by males, build a nest out of leaf litter. Females lay their eggs in the nest and then cover it with more leaf litter. Females, and occasionally males, guard the nest from predators until they hear the babies call with grunt-like squeaks. Females then help uncover eggs and break the shells open to get the juveniles out. At that point, juveniles stay near their mother, and sometimes within the male parent's territory, for around 1.5 years for additional protection from predators. The parents may incidentally provide some food scraps for the juveniles but, for the most part, juvenile caimans catch food for themselves. After about 1.5 years with their parents, juveniles disperse from their parent's territory. In some situations, young caimans remain closer to their parents for longer periods. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Britton, 2009a Grana Raffucci, 2007 Kohler, 2003 Ojasti, 1996 Ross, 1989)

  • Parental Investment
  • pre-fertilization
    • provisioning
    • protecting
      • female
      • provisioning
        • female
        • male
        • female
        • provisioning
          • female
          • female

          Lifespan/Longevity

          There is very little known about the lifespan of Caiman crocodilus . The longest known lifespan in the wild was estimated at about 60 years old. However, 30 to 40 years might be more normal. The average captive lifespan is 20 years, with a minimum record of 24 years. (Britton, 2009b Mertz, 2009)

          • Range lifespan
            Status: wild 60 (high) years
          • Range lifespan
            Status: captivity 24 (high) years
          • Typical lifespan
            Status: wild 30 to 40 years
          • Average lifespan
            Status: captivity 20 years

          Behavior

          Spectacled caimans live in loose-knit groups but are generally solitary except during mating season. They stay in the same territory and remain immobile for most of the day. During the heat of mid-day they stay submerged, morning to early afternoon they bask on the shore. They are able to rapidly respond to certain situations like catching prey. Spectacled caimans typically feed at night. During mating season, they become territorial and aggressive. Social rank is determined by size, with larger animals being more dominant. Animals with higher social rank tend to have more mating chances during mating season. (Ojasti, 1996)

          Home Range

          Home ranges are not large and spectacled caimans generally stay in their home ranges throughout the year. Home range size varies with the structure and richness of the habitat. (Kohler, 2003 Ojasti, 1996 Ross, 1989)

          Communication and Perception

          Spectacled caimans use taste, touch, sound, and visual senses for social and reproductive communication. The ability to detect vibrations in the water may aid in prey detection. (Britton, 2009a Britton, 2009b Ojasti, 1996)

          • Communication Channels
          • visual
          • tactile
          • acoustic
          • chemical
          • Other Communication Modes
          • vibrations
          • Perception Channels
          • visual
          • tactile
          • acoustic
          • vibrations
          • chemical

          Food Habits

          Spectacled caimans are carnivorous generalists. Prey items change as they grow from smaller to larger caimans. Prey can include insects, snails, shrimp, crabs, fish, lizards, snakes, turtles, birds, and mammals. Spectacled caimans have at least 105 prey items reported in their diet. Cannibalism can occur, especially under drought conditions, when many caimans of different sizes are concentrated in small areas. However this species can be surprisingly unaggressive and tolerant of temporarily dense concentrations during the dry season. (Mertz, 2009 Ross, 1989 University of Southern Mississippi, 2009)

          • Primary Diet
          • carnivore
            • eats terrestrial vertebrates
            • piscivore
            • insectivore
            • eats non-insect arthropods
            • molluscivore
            • scavenger
            • Animal Foods
            • birds
            • mammals
            • amphibians
            • reptiles
            • fish
            • carrion
            • insects
            • terrestrial non-insect arthropods
            • mollusks
            • aquatic crustaceans

            Predation

            During nesting time, tegu lizards (Tupinambis sp.) can destroy up to 80% of caiman nests in some places. Coatis (Nasua narica) and foxes also raid nests. Juveniles are eaten by large fish, wading birds, large snakes, and other crocodilians. Adult spectacled caimans are able to defend themselves from most potential predators, except humans. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Britton, 2009a)

            • Anti-predator Adaptations
            • cryptic
            • Known Predators
              • tegu lizards (Tupinambis teguixin)
              • coatimundis (Nasua narica)
              • herons (Ardeidae)
              • large fish ( Actiinopterygii )
              • other crococilians ( Crocodilia )
              • anacondas (Eunectes sp.)
              • humans (Homo sapiens)

              Ecosystem Roles

              Spectacled caimans are predators of aquatic invertebrates, fish, and other aquatic and shoreline vertebrates. In their native range they are important members of riparian shoreline and aquatic communities. Where spectacled caimans have been introduced outside of their normal range, spectacled caimans may have unpredictable, perhaps deleterious effects on prey species. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Grana Raffucci, 2007)

              Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

              Within their native range, spectacled caimans are usually the most abundant crocodiles and are the most heavily harvested species by humans for the hide industry. (Britton, 2009a Grana Raffucci, 2007 Ross, 1989)

              • Positive Impacts
              • pet trade
              • food
              • body parts are source of valuable material
              • controls pest population

              Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

              Spectacled caimans are potentially dangerous to humans and pets, and they occasionally attack livestock. Their smaller size compared to other crocodilians makes them less of a threat. They become shy and avoid humans in areas where they are frequently hunted. Spectacled caimans have been introduced outside their natural range, such as in southern Florida, and possible negative effects on local naive wildlife are in need of study. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Grana Raffucci, 2007)

              Conservation Status

              In 1986 and 1988 spectacled caimans were listed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service as a threatened species. This was due to increased hunting pressure on their populations. Caimans are heavily harvested for their skins to make leather products. The pet and curio trade has also had some degree of responsibility for local population declines. Spectacled caiman populations are still relatively stable in some parts of their range, although they are severely depleted or extirpated in many local areas, especially near human population centers. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2003 Britton, 2009a Crocodile Specialist Group, 1996 Ross, 1989)

              • IUCN Red List Lower Risk - Least Concern
                More information
              • IUCN Red List Lower Risk - Least Concern
                More information
              • US Federal ListThreatened
              • CITES Appendix II
              • State of Michigan List No special status

              Contributors

              Kayla Terry (author), Michigan State University, James Harding (editor, instructor), Michigan State University, Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.

              Glossary

              living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

              living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

              uses sound to communicate

              having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

              a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.

              areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries.

              an animal that mainly eats meat

              uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

              the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.

              helpers provide assistance in raising young that are not their own

              having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment being difficult to see or otherwise detect.

              ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates

              animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature

              an area where a freshwater river meets the ocean and tidal influences result in fluctuations in salinity.

              A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.

              mainly lives in water that is not salty.

              having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.

              An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.

              referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.

              offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

              marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.

              eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca

              having the capacity to move from one place to another.

              the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

              reproduction in which eggs are released by the female development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

              the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.

              an animal that mainly eats fish

              the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.

              Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).

              mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.

              an animal that mainly eats dead animals

              breeding is confined to a particular season

              reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

              a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.

              uses touch to communicate

              defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement

              The term is used in the 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals to refer collectively to species categorized as Endangered (E), Vulnerable (V), Rare (R), Indeterminate (I), or Insufficiently Known (K) and in the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals to refer collectively to species categorized as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), or Vulnerable (VU).

              the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.

              movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others

              uses sight to communicate

              References

              Bartlett, R., P. Bartlett. 2003. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Amazon . Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

              Crocodile Specialist Group, 1996. "Caiman crocodilus" (On-line). Accessed November 10, 2009 at http://www.redlist.org/apps/redlist/details/46584/0.

              Ferguson, M., T. Joanen. 1982. Temperature of egg incubation determines sex in Alligator mississippiensis. Nature , 296: 850-853. Accessed November 28, 2009 at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v296/n5860/abs/296850a0.html.

              Grana Raffucci, F. 2007. "Caiman crocodilus (reptile)" (On-line). Global Invasive Species Database. Accessed November 17, 2009 at http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1206&fr=1&sts=sss.

              Kohler, G. 2003. Reptiles of Central America . Offenbach, Germany: Herpeton.

              Ross, C. 1989. Crocodiles and Alligators . New York, New York: Facts On File, Inc..


              Hunting and diet

              Crocodiles hunt by stealthily stalking their prey from water. Some species ambush their prey as they drink from the water’s edge or bath. Many species are able to kill and eat large mammals such as zebras, wildebeests and humans. Once it has caught its prey, a crocodile will then drag it into the water and drown it. It eats its prey by biting off large chunks of meat and swallows them whole. Other species, such as the Chinese alligator and gharial, feed primarily on fish or invertebrates.


              Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

              It’s important to get your blood sugar under control to avoid these serious conditions:

                . If your blood sugar falls below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), it can lead to accidents, coma, and death. . Blood sugar that goes above 180 to 200 mg/dL can give you heart, nerve, kidney, and vision problems. Over the long term, it also can cause coma and death.

              Over time, people with type 2 diabetes may have other health problems:

                . When you don’t have enough insulin in your system, your blood sugar rises, and your body breaks down fat for energy. Toxic acids called ketones build up and spill into your urine. It can cause coma and death if you don’t treat it. and blood vessel diseases. People with diabetes are more likely to have conditions like high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which play a role in heart disease. Also, high blood sugar can damage your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart.
            • High blood pressure. Diabetes doubles your risk of high blood pressure, which makes you more likely to have heart disease or stroke. (diabetic neuropathy). This can cause tingling and numbness, most often in your feet and legs. But it can also affect your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels, and heart. damage. Diabetes can cause:
                , a buildup of pressure in your eyes , a cloudiness of your lens
            • Retinopathy, which is damage to the blood vessels in your eyes
              • Infections. You’re more likely to get bacterial and fungal infections.
              • Itching. Causes include infections, dry skin, and poor circulation. You might notice it on your lower legs.
              • Acanthosis nigricans. These velvety darker areas can appear on your neck, armpits, groin, hands, elbows, and knees.
              • Diabetic dermopathy. Changes to small blood vessels that look like red or brown scaly patches. They often show up on your feet and the fronts of your legs.
              • Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum. This rare condition also affects your blood vessels. It starts as a dull, red, raised area, but winds up as a shiny scar with a violet border. Your skin could itch or crack open. Women are more likely to get this than men.
              • Allergic reactions. You could get these in response to insulin or another diabetes medication.
              • Diabeticblisters(bullosis diabeticorum). These sores look like burn blisters and can show up on the backs of your fingers, hands, toes, feet, and sometimes legs or forearms.
              • Disseminatedgranuloma annulare. You might get red, brown, or skin-colored rings or arc-shaped raised areas on your fingers, ears, or trunk.

              Class 11 Biology chapter 10 Animal Tissue Textbook solutions

              Maharashtra state board Biology Textbook Solutions for Class 11 are very important and crusial that helps the students in understanding the hard topics and helps them in the preparation of class 11 board examination as well as verious compititive entrance examinations also. Studying the answers to the questions in the Biology textbook will check your understanding of a particular topic and helps you determine your strengths and weaknesses.

              Class 11 Biology textbook Solutions for Class 11, Biology Chapter 10 Animal Tissue maharashtra state board are provided here with simple step-by-step detailed explanations. These solutions for Animal Tissue are very popular among Class 11 students for biology chapter 10 Animal Tissue Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for compititive exams like NEET, CET abd verious medical entrance examination also. All questions and answers are taken from the class 11 Biology textbook, Bjology Textbook Solutions of Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 are provided here for you for without any charge its free for you. All Biology textbook Solutions for class 11. Solutions for class 11 Biology subject, These biology textbook solutions are prepared by experts in the field and are 100% accurate for you.

              1. Choose correct option
              A. The study of structure and arrangement of tissue is called as _____________
              a. anatomy
              b. histology
              c. microbiology
              d. morphology

              B. ____________ is a gland which is both exocrine and endocrine.
              a. Sebaceous
              b. Mammary
              c. Pancreas
              d. Pituitary

              C. _____________ cell junction is mediated
              by integrin.
              a. Gap
              b. Hemidesmosomes
              c. Desmosomes
              d. Adherens

              D. The protein found in cartilage is _______.
              a. ossein
              b. haemoglobin
              c. chondrin
              d. renin

              E. Find the odd one out
              a. Thyroid gland
              b. Pituitary gland
              c. Adrenal gland
              d. Salivary gland


              2. Answer the following questions
              A. Identify and name the type of tissues in the following:
              a. Inner lining of the intestine
              Answer : Squamous epithelium Tissue

              b. Heart wall
              Answer : Cardiac muscle tissue

              c. Skin
              Answer : Epidermis

              d. Nerve cord
              Answer : Nervous tissue

              e. Inner lining of the buccal cavity
              Answer : Stratified squamous epithelium

              B. Why do animals in cold regions have a
              layer of fat below their skin?
              Answer : A thick layer made of fats is present below the skin of the animals which stays in regions which is very cold. This layer is called Blubber. This layer is present to help the animals to be warm and escape from the extreme coldness. Thus, it performs its duty by insulating the body of the animals.

              C. What enables the ear pinna to be folded and twisted while the nose tip can’t be twisted?
              Answer : There is no bone in the tip of the nose and external part of the ear, it can be bent easily.

              Elastic cartilage is present in the nose, at the tip and around the nostrils, and in the external ears , for the same reason.

              However, the elastic cartilage allows them to return to their original configuration without permanent distortions.

              D. Sharad touched a hot plate by mistake and took away his hand quickly. Can you recognize the tissue and its type responsible for it?
              Answer : Reflex arc is responsible for the sudden action of the body.

              Explanation: Receptors are present in every part of the skin. These receptors send nerve impulses to the spinal cord and brain. The spinal cord and brain send impulses to take away the hand when come in contact with that of the hot plate. Such actions are called reflex actions and reflex arc is responsible for this.

              E. Priya got injured in an accident and hurt her long bone and later on she was also diagnosed with anaemia. What could be the probable reason?
              Answer : The probable reason could be injury in the "bone marrow".

              Explanation: Priya got injured in an accident and "hurt her long bone" and later on she was also "diagnosed" with "anaemia". The most probable reason could be injury in the bone marrow of the long bone. Injury or damage to the bone marrow of the long bone may result in abnormality of the "bone marrow", resulting in "lesser production of blood cells". This insufficient production may have given rise to anaemia in Priya.

              F. Supriya stepped out into the bright street from a cinema theatre. In response, her eye pupil shrunk. Identify the muscle responsible for the same.
              Answer : The optic nerves and muscles in the iris and the pupil makes the eyes of Supriya who stepped out into the bright street from a cinema theatre shrink. Explanation: The light enters the eyes through the cornea.


              3. Answer the following quetions
              A. What is cell junction? Describe different types of cell junctions.
              Answer : The epithelial cells are connected to each other laterally as well as to the basement membrane by junctional complexes called cell junctions.

              Tight junctions (TJs): These junctions maintain cell polarity, prevent lateral diffusion of proteins and ions.

              Hemidesmosomes (HDs) : Allow the cells to strongly adhere to the underlying basement membrane. These maintain tissue homeostasis by signaling.

              Desmosomes (Ds) : These provide mechanical strength to epithelial tissue, cardiac muscles and meninges.

              Gap Junctions (GJs) : This intercellular connection allows passage of ions and small molecules between cells as well as exchange of chemical messages between cells.

              Adherens Junctions (AJs) : It is involved in various signaling pathways and transcriptional regulations.


              B. With help of neat labelled diagram,
              describe the structure of areolar connective tissue.
              Answer : Areolar tissue (Areola : air pockets): Matrix of this tissue contains two types of fibres namely white fibres and yellow fibres. White fibres are made up of collagen.

              1. They give tensile strength to the tissue. Yellow fibres are made up of elastin and are elastic in nature.
              2. The tissue also contains four different types of cells Fibroblast the large flat cells having branching processe.
              3. They produce fibres as well as polysaccharides that form the ground substance or matrix of the tissue. Mast cells are oval cells that secrete heparin and histamine.
              4. Macrophages are amoeboid, phagocytic cells. Fat cells, also called adipocytes have eccentric nucleus. These cells store fat. This tissue acts as packing material, helps in healing process and connects different organs or layers of tissues.
              5. It is found under the skin, between muscles, bones, around organs, blood vessels and peritoneum.

              C. Describe the structure of multipolar
              neuron.
              Answer :

              Multipolar Neuron : Cyton is star shaped and gives out more than two processes. There is only one axon and remaining are dendrons. Axon initiates from a funnel shaped area called axon-hillock.

              A neuron is made up of cyton or cell body. It contains granular cytoplasm called
              neuroplasm and centrally placed nucleus.
              Neuroplasm contains mitochondria, Golgi
              apparatus, RER and granules called Nissl’s
              granules. They are made up of RNA. Cell body gives out two types of processes namely dendron and axon.

              Dendrons are short, branched, processes. The fine branches of dendron are called dendrites. They carry impulse towards
              cyton. An axon is single, elongated, cylindrical process.

              Axon is bounded by axolemma. The
              protoplasm of the axon is axoplasm. It contains large number of mitochondria and neurofibrils. Axon is enclosed in a fatty sheath called myelin sheath. Outer covering of myelin sheath is neurilemma. Myelin sheath and neurilemma are parts of another cell called Schwann's cell.
              Schwann cell shows nucleus at periphery. The myelin sheath is absent at intervals along the axon and the place is called Node of Ranvier. The terminal arborization of anaxon is called
              telodendron.

              D. Distinguish between smooth muscles
              and skeletal muscles.
              Answer :
              Skeletal muscles :

              1. These muscles are found attached to bones.
              2. Skeletal muscles consists of large number of fasciculi which are wrapped by connective tissue sheath called epimysium or fascia.
              3. Each individual fasciculus is covered by perimysium. Each fasiculus in turn consists of many muscle fibres called myofibres.

              Smooth or Non-striated muscles :

              1. These muscles are present in the form of sheets or layers.
              2. Each muscle cell is spindle shaped or fusiform. The fibres are unbranched having single nucleus at the centre.
              3. Sarcoplasm contains myofibrils. Myofibrils are made up of contractile proteins actin and myosin.
              4. Smooth muscles contain less myosin and more actin as compared to skeletal muscles. Striations are absent.
              5. These muscles undergo slow and sustained involuntary contractions. They are innervated by autonomous nervous system.


              4. Complete the following table


              Answer :
              1. maintain heart beat


              5. Match the following
              'A' Group. 'B' Group
              1. Muscle. a. Perichondrium
              2. Bone. b. Sarcolemma
              3. Nerve cell. c. Periosteum
              4. Cartilage. d. Neurilemma.
              Answer :
              1. Muscle- Sarcolemma
              2. bone- periosteum
              3. nerve cell- neurelemma
              4. cartilage- perichondrium


              Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions

              Type I hypersensitivities are immune reactions to allergens. Allergens can be anything (pollen, mold, peanuts, medicine, etc.) that triggers an allergic reaction in some individuals. These same allergens do not normally cause problems in most individuals.  

              Type I reactions involve two types of white blood cells (mast cells and basophils), as well as immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Upon the initial exposure to an allergen, the immune system produces IgE antibodies which bind to the cell membranes of mast cells and basophils. The antibodies are specific to a particular allergen and serve to detect the allergen upon subsequent exposure.

              A second exposure results in a rapid immune response as IgE antibodies attached to mast cells and basophils bind allergens and initiate degranulation in the white blood cells. During degranulation, mast cells or basophils release granules that contain inflammatory molecules. The actions of such molecules (heparin, histamine, and serotonin) result in allergy symptoms: runny nose, watery eyes, hives, coughing, and wheezing.  

              Allergies can range from mild hay fever to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a serious condition, resulting from inflammation caused by histamine release, that impacts the respiratory and circulatory systems. The systemic inflammation results in low blood pressure and blockage of air passages due to swelling of the throat and tongue. Death may occur quickly if not treated with epinephrine.  


              A Word From Verywell

              Comorbidity involves more than one diagnosis at once, or two or more illnesses which occur back to back. There are many different causes of comorbidity. There may be a chance occurrence that a person has a comorbidity.

              Risk factors for certain types of illnesses overlap, and these independent risk factors often impact each condition when a person has a comorbidity. These are referred to as "overlapping risk factors." Another possibility is when one disorder actually causes another.  

              It's important to keep in mind is that although you may have an illness that is commonly associated with other specific conditions or symptoms (such as high blood pressure), it doesn't necessarily mean that you will be diagnosed with a comorbidity.