Why is Cannabis Sativa considered a distinct form of Cannabis?

Why is Cannabis Sativa considered a distinct form of Cannabis?

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My understanding is that the word Sativa is Latin and means "cultivated." See here:

Since all cannabis consumed by people is cultivated and grown from seed, shouldn't all Cannabis be called Cannabis Sativa? And so isn't Cannabis Indica also Cannabis Sativa? If taking a cutting of a plant grown from seed and rooting it means that "clone" isn't considered to have been grown from seed then maybe those plants shouldn't be called Sativa, although this would still seem to qualify as cultivation. But either way I fail to see what bearing it has on phenotype or alkaloid profile. How has it come to mean having thin leaves and high THC content?

C. sativa was originally named by Linnaeus in 1753, long before the plant was commonly used for recreation (in Europe, at least), so the name probably reflects the fact that that species was cultivated for fiber (hemp), just as many plants have the Latin name Officinalis or officinale, meaning that they were used in medicine. Later botanists considered other varieties to be sufficiently different to be different species or subspecies. (Including some interesting reasons based in the laws of the 1970s: )

It's also not true that all Cannabis is cultivated. It can be found growing wild, either native or as a introduced plant, in many parts of the world.

The simple answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes and no. If asked some people will say that marijuana is a psychedelic because it alters consciousness and sometimes creates hallucinations. Some people will say that it is not a psychedelic because it is classified differently and is not a hallucinogen. In order to understand why marijuana is a psychedelic, it is important to understand the properties of a psychedelic and the properties of marijuana including the effects of both.

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s publication, “DrugFacts Marijuana,” marijuana is any part of the hemp plant that or cannabis sativa. This definition includes the stems, leaves, and flowers. It contains the chemical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC. It is classed by drug enforcement agencies as cannabis and it is the only drug in that class. It does not function like any of the other drugs or medications that are commonly used. It is in some respects a legal medical treatment and in others an illicit drug.

Types of marijuana

There are two main types of marijuana as well as hundreds of strains and crossbreeds from these two main types. Some of the names for these strains and crossbreeds vary from region to region and reach into the thousands. The two main types are Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa. Cannabis Sativa is the most common, most recognized, and the most used type. People use both for medicinal purposes such as to reduce pain and to increase the appetite. Doctors prescribe Medical marijuana for chronic pain and some cancers.

Effects of marijuana on the brain

Marijuana can cause neurological changes.

Both strains of marijuana have similar effects on the brain. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration, it over stimulates several sections of the brain that have a large amount of receptors. The THC binds to these receptors causing:

  • heightened or altered senses such as brighter lights and colors,
  • changes in emotional state or mood,
  • altered states of mind and cognition,
  • difficulty solving problems almost to the point of confusion,
  • heightened or altered sense of time passing, and
  • heavier body movements.

Many people argue over the individual effects of each strain. These are the basic effects that any strain of marijuana has to a greater or lesser degree.

Side effects of marijuana

Like any drug, marijuana has several side effects. Some of these side effects are why people use the drug while others are more dangerous. The main side effects of marijuana are:

  • euphoria,
  • memory issues,
  • lethargy and drowsiness,
  • loss of motivation and interest,
  • increased appetite,
  • lung irritation,
  • sedation,
  • dry mouth,
  • increased heart rate and blood pressure, and
  • bloodshot eyes.

Long term side effects are permanent memory and perceptual impairment. It is important to note that there are other side effects but most can be attributed to other issues such as smoking, other drugs, other health issues, and chronic conditions. Some people state that marijuana like psychedelics cause hallucinations but it does not typically cause them.


The etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word the Greek term κάνναβις (kánnabis) is the oldest attested form, which may have been borrowed from an earlier Scythian or Thracian word. [10] [11] Then it appears to have been borrowed into Latin, and separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic, Finnish, and Germanic languages. [12]

In the Germanic languages, following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, [10] [13] giving Proto-Germanic *hanapiz, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep, henep. [10] Barber (1991) however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its historically more recent plant use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. [12] Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. [12]

Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep, Danish and Norwegian hamp, Saterland Frisian Hoamp, German Hanf, Icelandic hampur and Swedish hampa. In those languages "hemp" can refer to either industrial fiber hemp or narcotic cannabis strains. [10]

Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products, including rope, textiles, clothing, shoes, food, paper, bioplastics, insulation, and biofuel. [4] The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are woodier and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding, and litter. When oxidized (often erroneously referred to as "drying"), hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. [14] A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. [15]

Food Edit

Hemp seeds are high in complete protein and are also a great source of iron. They can be eaten raw, ground into hemp meal, sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can also be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. [16] Hemp oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids. [17] The leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, and pressed to make juice. [18] In the Kumaun region of Uttarakhand, India, hemp seeds are ground with lemon juice and Himalayan salt into a paste. Water is then added to make 'Bhang Chutney'. This dip has been served since ancient times as a side dish with several meals.

In 2011, the US imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products, mostly driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. [19]

In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. [20] In the US, hemp can be used legally in food products and, as of 2000 [update] , was typically sold in health food stores or through mail order. [17]

Nutrition Edit

A 100-gram ( 3 + 1 ⁄ 2 -ounce) portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 2,451 kilojoules (586 kilocalories) of food energy. They contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, and 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value (DV) of protein per 100-gram serving. [21] Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV), B vitamins, and the dietary minerals manganese (362% DV), phosphorus (236% DV), magnesium (197% DV), zinc (104% DV), and iron (61% DV). About 73% of the energy in hemp seeds is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids, [21] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids. [22] The ratio of the 38.100 grams of polyunsaturated fats per 100 grams is 9.301 grams of omega‑3 to 28.698 grams of omega‑6. [23] Typically, the portion suggested on packages for an adult is 30 grams, approximately three tablespoons.

Hemp seeds' amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs, and soy. [22] Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hemp seed meal, and 0.63–0.66 for hulled hemp seed. [24]

Despite the very high quality of hemp seed nutritional value, [25] hemp seeds nevertheless contain some antinutritional compounds, including phytic acid, [26] trypsin inhibitors, and tannins, in significant concentrations. [27]

Storage Edit

Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time if not stored properly [17] its shelf life is extended when it is stored in a dark airtight container and refrigerated. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil.

Fiber Edit

Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was also commonly used to make sail canvas. The word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. [28] [29] Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen. [30] Because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, shoes, accessories, dog collars, and home wares. For clothing, in some instances, hemp is mixed with lyocell. [31]

Building material Edit

Hemp as a building construction material provides solutions to a variety of issues facing current building standards. Its light-weightiness, mold resistance, breathability, etc. makes hemp products versatile in a multitude of uses. [32] Following the co-heating tests of NNFCC Renewable House at the Building Research Establishment (BRE), hemp is reported to be a more sustainable material of construction in comparison to most building methods used today. [33] In addition, its practical use in building construction could result in a reduction of energy consumption costs and the creation of secondary pollutants. [33]

The hemp market was at its largest during the 17th century. Afterwards, in the 19th century and onwards, the market saw a decline during its rapid illegalization in many countries. [34] Hemp has recently resurfaced in green building construction, roughly 25 years ago in Europe. [35] The modern-day disputes regarding the legality of hemp lead to its main disadvantages importing and regulating costs. Final Report on the Construction of the Hemp Houses at Haverhill, UK conducts that hemp construction exceeds the cost of traditional building materials by £48per square meter. [35]

Currently, the University of Bath researches the use of hemp-lime panel systems for construction. Funded by the European Union, the research tests panel design within their use in high-quality construction, on site assembly, humidity and moisture penetration, temperature change, daily performance and energy saving documentations. [36] The program, focusing on Britain, France, and Spain markets aims to perfect protocols of use and application, manufacturing, data gathering, certification for market use, as well as warranty and insurance. [36]

The most common use of hemp-lime in building is by casting the hemp-hurd and lime mix while wet around a timber frame with temporary shuttering and tamping the mix to form a firm mass. After the removal of the temporary shuttering, the solidified hemp mix is then ready to be plastered with lime plaster. [37]

Sustainability Edit

Hemp is classified under the green category of building design, primarily due to its positive effects on the environment. [38] A few of its benefits include but are not limited to the suppression of weed growth, anti-erosion, reclamation properties, and the ability to drain soil from poisonous substances and heavy metals. [38]

The use of hemp is beginning to gain popularity alongside other natural materials. This is because cannabis processing is done mechanically with minimal harmful effects on the environment. A part of what makes hemp sustainable is its minimal water usage and unreliability on pesticides for proper growth. It is recyclable, non-toxic, and biodegradable, making hemp a popular choice in green building construction. [38]

Hemp fiber is known to have high strength and durability, and has been known to be a good protector against vermin. The fiber has the capability to reinforce structures by embossing threads and cannabis shavers. Hemp has been involved more recently in the building industry, producing building construction materials including insulation, hempcrete, and varnishes. [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44]

Hemp made materials have low embodied energy. The plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of CO2, providing air quality, thermal balance, creating a positive environmental impact. [40]

Hemp’s properties allow mold resistance, and its porous materiality makes the building materials made of it breathable. In addition hemp possesses the ability to absorb and release moisture without deteriorating. Hemp can be non-flammable if mixed with lime and could be applied on numerous aspects of the building (wall, roofs, etc.) due to its lightweight properties. [38] [40]

Insulation Edit

Hemp is commonly used as an insulation material. Its flexibility and toughness during compression allows for easier implementation within structural framing systems. The Insulation material could also be easily adjusted to different sizes and shapes by being cut during the installation process. The ability to not settle and therefore avoiding cavity developments lowers its need for maintenance. [45]

Hemp insulation is naturally lightweight and non-toxic, allowing for an exposed installation in a variety of spaces, including flooring, walling, and roofing. Compared to mineral insulation, hemp absorbs roughly double the amount of heat and could be compared to wood, in some cases even overpassing some of its types. [45]

Hemp insulation's porous materiality allows for air and moisture penetration, with a bulk density going up to 20% without losing any thermal properties. In contrast, the commonly used mineral insulation starts to fail after 2%. The insulation evenly distributes vapor and allows for air circulation, constantly carrying out used air and replacing with fresh. Its use on the exterior of the structure, overlaid with breathable water-resistive barriers, eases the withdrawal of moisture from within the wall structure. [45]

In addition, the insulation doubles as a sound barrier, weakening airborne sound waves passing through it. [45]

Concrete Edit

In addition to the absorbed CO2 during its growth period, hemp repeats during the creation of the concrete. The mixture hardens when the silica contained in hemp shives mixes with lime, resulting in the mineralization process which extracts the CO2 from the air, purifying it. The resulted concrete continues to do so in the application during its touch with water. [46]

Hemp is most commonly used as concrete in building construction due to its lightness (roughly seven times lighter than common concrete). The building material is made of hemp herds (shives), hydraulic lime, and water mixture varying in ratios. [47] The mix depends on the use of concrete within the structure and could differ in physical properties. Surfaces such as flooring interact with a multitude of loads and would have to be more resistible, while walls and roofs are required to be more lightweight. [47] The application of this material in construction requires minimal skill. [47]

The most common variation of this building style is hempcrete made of concrete-like blocks. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements and must be supported by brick, wood, or steel framing. [48] In the end of the twentieth century, during his renovation of Maison de la Turquie in Nogent-sur-Seine, France, Charles Rasetti first invented and applied the use of hempcrete in construction. Shortly after, in 2000's,Modece Architects used hemp-lime for test designs in Haverhill. [49] The dwellings were studied and monitored for comparison with other building performances by BRE. Completed 9 years later the buildings were found to be one of the most technologically advanced structures made of hemp-based material. Following the discovery, it pioneered hemp's use in UK construction. [49] A year later the first home made of hemp-based materials was completed in Asheville, North Carolina, US. [50]

Oils and varnishes Edit

Cannabis seeds have high-fat content and contain 30-35% of fatty acids. The extracted oil is suited for a variety of construction applications. [51] The biodegradable hemp oil acts as a wood varnish, protecting flooring from mold, pests, and wear. Its use prevents the water from penetrating the wood while still allowing air and vapor to pass through. [52] Its most common use can be seen in wood framing construction, one of the most common construction methods in the world. Because of its low UV-resistant rating, the finish is most often used indoors, on surfaces such as flooring and wood paneling. [53] [52] [54]

Plaster Edit

Hemp-based insulating plaster is created by combining hemp fibers with calcium lime and sand. This material, when applied on internal walls, ceilings, and flooring, can be layered up to ten centimeters in thickness. Its porous materiality allows the created plaster to regulate air humidity and evenly distribute it. [55] The gradual absorption and release of water prevent the material from cracking and breaking apart. [56] [55] Similar to high-density fiber cement, hemp plaster can naturally vary in color and be manually pigmented. [57]

Ropes and strands Edit

Hemp ropes can be woven in various diameters, possessing high amounts of strength making them suitable for a variety of uses for building construction purposes. [58] Some of these uses include installation of frames in building openings and connection of joints. The ropes also used in bridge construction, tunnels, traditional homes, etc. [58] One of the earliest examples of hemp rope and other textile use can be traced back to 1500 BC Egypt. [59]

Plastics Edit

Cannabis geotextiles could be put in both wet and dry conditions. Hemp-based bioplastic is a biodegradable alternative to regular plastic and can potentially replace PVC (Polyvinyl chloride), a material used for plumbing pipes. [60]

Wood Edit

Hemp growth lasts roughly 100 days, a much faster time period than an average tree used for construction purposes. While dry, the fibers could be pressed into tight wood alternatives to wood frame construction, wall/ceiling paneling, and flooring. As an addition, hemp is flexible and versatile allowing it to be used in a greater number of ways than wood. [61] Similarly, hemp wood could also be made of recycled hemp-based paper. [62]

Hemp interior thermal insulation blocks

Hemp acoustic ceiling insulation

Highland Hemp House finished hempcrete

Hemp sound insulation brick

Hemp rope used in construction

Sustainable construction in practice

House that used hemp as one of its building materials

Composite materials Edit

A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles. [63] The choice of which bast fiber to use is primarily based on cost and availability. Various car makers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including Audi, BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Iveco, Lotus, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Saturn, Volkswagen [64] and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise [65] and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter). [66]

Hemp plastic interior of a car door

Hemp plastic automobile glove box

Hemp plastic column, automobile

Hemp composite sink basin

Paper Edit

Hemp paper are paper varieties consisting exclusively or to a large extent from pulp obtained from fibers of industrial hemp. The products are mainly specialty papers such as cigarette paper, [67] banknotes and technical filter papers. [68] Compared to wood pulp, hemp pulp offers a four to five times longer fibre, a significantly lower lignin fraction as well as a higher tear resistance and tensile strength. However, production costs are about four times higher than for paper from wood, [69] since the infrastructure for using hemp is underdeveloped. If the paper industry were to switch from wood to hemp for sourcing its cellulose fibers, the following benefits could be utilized:

  • Hemp yields three to four times more usable fibre per hectare per annum than forests, and hemp doesn't need pesticides or herbicides. [70]
  • Hemp has a much faster crop yield. It takes about 3–4 months for hemp stalks to reach maturity, [71] while trees can take between 20 and 80 years. Not only does hemp grow at a faster rate, but it also contains a high level of cellulose. [72] This quick return means that paper can be produced at a faster rate if hemp were used in place of wood.
  • Hemp paper does not require the use of toxic bleaching or as many chemicals as wood pulp because it can be whitened with hydrogen peroxide. This means using hemp instead of wood for paper would end the practice of poisoning Earth's waterways with chlorine or dioxins from wood paper manufacturing. [73]
  • Hemp paper can be recycled up to 8 times, compared to just 3 times for paper made from wood pulp. [73]
  • Compared to its wood pulp counterpart, paper from hemp fibers resists decomposition and does not yellow or brown with age. [73] It is also one of the strongest natural fibers in the world [74] - one of the reasons for its longevity and durability.
  • Several factors favor the increased use of wood substitutes for paper, especially agricultural fibers such as hemp. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world's decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Hemp's use as a wood substitute will contribute to preserving biodiversity. [74]

However, hemp has had a hard time competing with paper from trees or recycled newsprint. Only the outer part of the stem consists mainly of fibers which are suitable for the production of paper. Numerous attempts have been made to develop machines that efficiently and inexpensively separate useful fibers from less useful fibers, but none have been completely successful. This has meant that paper from hemp is still expensive compared to paper from trees.

Jewelry Edit

Hemp jewelry is the product of knotting hemp twine through the practice of macramé. Hemp jewellery includes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, and other adornments. Some jewellery features beads made from crystals, glass, stone, wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewellery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common.

Cordage Edit

Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships, though the rope had to be protected by tarring, since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot, as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside. [75] Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname "Jack Tar". Hemp rope was phased out when manila rope, which does not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp, but is not related to hemp it is abacá, a species of banana.

Animal bedding Edit

Hemp shives are the core of the stem, hemp hurds are broken parts of the core. In the EU, they are used for animal bedding (horses, for instance), or for horticultural mulch. [76] Industrial hemp is much more profitable if both fibers and shives (or even seeds) can be used.

Water and soil purification Edit

Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation—the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air. [77]

Weed control Edit

Hemp crops are tall, have thick foliage, and can be planted densely, and thus can be grown as a smother crop to kill tough weeds. [78] Using hemp this way can help farmers avoid the use of herbicides, gain organic certification, and gain the benefits of crop rotation. However, due to the plant's rapid and dense growth characteristics, some jurisdictions consider hemp a prohibited and noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom. [79]

The dense growth of hemp helps kill weeds, even thistle.

Biofuels Edit

Biodiesel can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks this product is sometimes called "hempoline". [80] Alcohol fuel (ethanol or, less commonly, methanol) can be made by fermenting the whole plant.

Filtered hemp oil can be used directly to power diesel engines. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, which he intended to power "by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils, which earlier were used for oil lamps, i.e. the Argand lamp". [81] [82] [83]

Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. Commercial biodiesel and biogas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palm seeds, and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste. [84]

Separation of hurd and bast fiber is known as decortication. Traditionally, hemp stalks would be water-retted first before the fibers were beaten off the inner hurd by hand, a process known as scutching. As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers, or by hammer-milling, wherein a mechanical hammer mechanism beats the hemp against a screen until hurd, smaller bast fibers, and dust fall through the screen. After the Marijuana Tax Act was implemented in 1938, the technology for separating the fibers from the core remained "frozen in time". Recently, new high-speed kinematic decortication has come about, capable of separating hemp into three streams bast fiber, hurd, and green microfiber.

Only in 1997, did Ireland, parts of the Commonwealth and other countries begin to legally grow industrial hemp again. Iterations of the 1930s decorticator have been met with limited success, along with steam explosion and chemical processing known as thermomechanical pulping. [ citation needed ]

Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. [85] It matures in about three to four months. [86]

Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that display a wide range of traits e.g. suited for a particular environments/latitudes, producing different ratios and compositions of terpenoids and cannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBG, CBC, CBN. etc.), fibre quality, oil/seed yield, etc. Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. [87]

The use of industrial hemp plant and its cultivation was commonplace until the 1900s when it was associated with its genetic sibling a.k.a. Drug-Type Cannabis species (which contain higher levels of psychoactive THC). Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous "drug", [88] even though hemp is not a recreational drug and has the potential to be a sustainable and profitable crop for many farmers due to hemp's medical, structural and dietary uses. [89] [90]

In the United States, the public's perception of hemp as marijuana has blocked hemp from becoming a useful crop and product," [89] in spite of its vital importance prior to World War II. [90] Ideally, according to Britain's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the herb should be desiccated and harvested towards the end of flowering. This early cropping reduces the seed yield but improves the fiber yield and quality. [91] In these strains of industrial hemp* the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content would have been very low. [89]

Cultivars Edit

In contrast to cannabis for medical use, varieties grown for fiber and seed have less than 0.3% THC and are unsuitable for producing hashish and marijuana. [93] Present in industrial hemp, cannabidiol is a major constituent among some 560 compounds found in hemp. [94]

Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes. The major differences between the two types of plants are the appearance, and the amount of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically. [93] [95] Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for medicinal or recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%. [96]

Hemp strains USO-xx and Zolotoniski-xx

Harvesting Edit

Smallholder plots are usually harvested by hand. The plants are cut at 2 to 3 cm above the soil and left on the ground to dry. Mechanical harvesting is now common, using specially adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters.

The cut hemp is laid in swathes to dry for up to four days. This was traditionally followed by retting, either water retting (the bundled hemp floats in water) or dew retting (the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew and by molds and bacterial action).

Industrial hempseed harvesting machine in France

Harvesting industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) - This is a separate harvest for a different form of processing: The upper part of the plant with the leaves will be collected for cold pressing, while the lower part remains for producing fiber and initially it is left on the field.

Pests Edit

Several arthropods can cause damage or injury to hemp plants, but the most serious species are associated with the Insecta class. The most problematic for outdoor crops are the voracious stem-boring caterpillars, which include the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the Eurasian hemp borer, Grapholita delineana. [97] As the names imply, they target the stems reducing the structural integrity of the plant. [97] Another lepidopteran, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is known to damage flowering parts and can be challenging to control. [98] Other foliar pests, found in both indoor and outdoor crops, include the hemp russet mite, Aculops cannibicola, and cannabis aphid, Phorodon cannabis. [98] They cause injury by reducing plant vigour because they feed on the phloem of the plant. Root feeders can be difficult to detect and control because of their below surface habitat. A number of beetle grubs and chafers are known to cause damage to hemp roots, including the flea beetle and Japanese beetle, Popillia Japonica. [97] The rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale, has also been reported but primarily affects indoor growing facilities. [98] Integrated pest management strategies should be employed to manage these pests with prevention and early detection being the foundation of a resilient program. Cultural and physical controls should be employed in conjunction with biological pest controls, chemical applications should only be used as a last resort.

Diseases Edit

Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. Such diseases often lead to reduced fiber quality, stunted growth, and death of the plant. These diseases rarely affect the yield of a hemp field, so hemp production is not traditionally dependent on the use of pesticides.

Environmental impact Edit

Hemp is considered by a 1998 study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks. [99] A 2010 study, however, that compared the production of paper specifically from hemp and eucalyptus concluded that "industrial hemp presents higher environmental impacts than eucalyptus paper" however, the article also highlights that "there is scope for improving industrial hemp paper production". [100] Hemp is also claimed to require few pesticides and no herbicides, and it has been called a carbon negative raw material. [101] [102] Results indicate that high yield of hemp may require high total nutrient levels (field plus fertilizer nutrients) similar to a high yielding wheat crop. [103]

The world-leading producer of hemp is China, which produces more than 70% of the world output. France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe, Chile, and North Korea. Over 30 countries produce industrial hemp, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Greece, [104] Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Ukraine. [105] [106]

The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics many traditional growing countries continue to produce textile-grade fibre.

Air-dried stem yields in Ontario have from 1998 and onward ranged from 2.6 to 14.0 tonnes of dry, retted stalks per hectare (1–5.5 t/ac) at 12% moisture. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8.75 t/ha (3.5 t/ac). Northern Ontario crops averaged 6.1 t/ha (2.5 t/ac) in 1998. Statistic for the European Union for 2008 to 2010 say that the average yield of hemp straw has varied between 6.3 and 7.3 ton per ha. [107] [108] Only a part of that is bast fiber. Around one tonne of bast fiber and 2–3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3–4 tonnes of good-quality, dry-retted straw. For an annual yield of this level is it in Ontario recommended to add nitrogen (N):70–110 kg/ha, phosphate (P2O5): up to 80 kg/ha and potash (K2O): 40–90 kg/ha. [109] The average yield of dry hemp stalks in Europe was 6 ton/ha (2.4 ton/ac) in 2001 and 2002. [15]

FAO argue that an optimum yield of hemp fiber is more than 2 tonnes per ha, while average yields are around 650 kg/ha. [110]

Australia Edit

In the Australian states of Tasmania, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, New South Wales, and most recently, South Australia, the state governments have issued licences to grow hemp for industrial use. The first to initiate modern research into the potential of cannabis was the state of Tasmania, which pioneered the licensing of hemp during the early 1990s. The state of Victoria was an early adopter in 1998, and has reissued the regulation in 2008. [111]

Queensland has allowed industrial production under licence since 2002, [112] where the issuance is controlled under the Drugs Misuse Act 1986. [113] Western Australia enabled the cultivation, harvest and processing of hemp under its Industrial Hemp Act 2004, [114] New South Wales now issues licences [115] under a law, the Hemp Industry Regulations Act 2008 (No 58), that came into effect as of 6 November 2008. [116] Most recently, South Australia legalized industrial hemp under South Australia's Industrial Hemp Act 2017, which commenced on 12 November 2017. [117]

Canada Edit

Commercial production (including cultivation) of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since 1998 under licenses and authorization issued by Health Canada (9,725 ha in 2004, 5450 ha in 2009). [118]

In the early 1990s, industrial hemp agriculture in North America began with the Hemp Awareness Committee at the University of Manitoba. The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government. Their efforts led to the legalization of industrial hemp (hemp with only minute amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol) in Canada and the first harvest in 1998. [119] [120]

In 2017, the cultivated area for hemp in the Prairie provinces include Saskatchewan with more than 56,000 acres (23,000 ha), Alberta with 45,000 acres (18,000 ha), and Manitoba with 30,000 acres (12,000 ha). [121] Canadian hemp is cultivated mostly for its food value as hulled hemp seeds, hemp oils, and hemp protein powders, with only a small fraction devoted to production of hemp fiber used for construction and insulation. [121]

France Edit

France is Europe's biggest producer (and the world's second largest producer) with 8,000 hectares (20,000 acres) cultivated. [122] 70–80% of the hemp fibre produced in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications. About 15% was used in the automotive sector, and 5-6% was used for insulation mats. About 95% of hurds were used as animal bedding, while almost 5% was used in the building sector. [15] In 2010/2011, a total of 11,000 hectares (27,000 acres) was cultivated with hemp in the EU, a decline compared with previous year. [108] [123]

Industrial hemp production in France

Russia and Ukraine Edit

From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's largest producer of hemp (3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine, [124] the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia, and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content. [125] [126]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the commercial cultivation of hemp declined sharply. However, at least an estimated 2.5 million acres of hemp grow wild in the Russian Far East and the Black Sea regions. [127]

United Kingdom Edit

In the United Kingdom, cultivation licences are issued by the Home Office under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. When grown for nondrug purposes, hemp is referred to as industrial hemp, and a common product is fibre for use in a wide variety of products, as well as the seed for nutritional aspects and the oil. Feral hemp or ditch weed is usually a naturalized fibre or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is self-seeding. [128]

United States Edit

In October 2019, hemp became legal to grow in 46 U.S. states under federal law. As of 2019, 47 states have enacted legislation to make hemp legal to grow at the state level, with several states implementing medical provisions regarding the growing of plants specifically for non-psychoactive CBD. [129]

The 2018 Farm Bill, which incorporated the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, removed hemp as a Schedule I drug and instead made it an agricultural commodity. This legalized hemp at the federal level, which made it easier for hemp farmers to get production licenses, acquire loans, and receive federal crop insurance. [130] The bill allows Idaho, Mississippi, New Hampshire, and South Dakota to continue to ban the growth of industrial hemp in those states. [131] However, some of these states have enacted their own legislation to allow the research and production of hemp.

  • NH 2014 N.H. Laws, Chap. 18, SD: HB 1008 (2020)
  • S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §38-35-1 et seq.
    • Authorizes the growth, production and transportation of hemp with a license, and directs the Department of Agriculture to submit a state plan to USDA.
    • Requires a minimum of five contiguous outdoor acres for grower license applications, and requires any license applicants to submit to a state and federal criminal background investigation.
    • Requires a transportation permit for any transporter traveling within or through the state and creates two types of industrial hemp transportation permits (grower licensee and general) provided by the Department of Public Safety.
    • Creates the Hemp Regulatory Program Fund. [132]

    The process to legalize hemp cultivation began in 2009, when Oregon began approving licenses for industrial hemp. [133] Then, in 2013, after the legalization of marijuana, several farmers in Colorado planted and harvested several acres of hemp, bringing in the first hemp crop in the United States in over half a century. [134] After that, the federal government created a Hemp Farming Pilot Program as a part of the Agricultural Act of 2014. [135] This program allowed institutions of higher education and state agricultural departments to begin growing hemp without the consent of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Hemp production in Kentucky, formerly the United States' leading producer, resumed in 2014. [136] Hemp production in North Carolina resumed in 2017, [137] and in Washington State the same year. [138] By the end of 2017, at least 34 U.S. states had industrial hemp programs. In 2018, New York began taking strides in industrial hemp production, along with hemp research pilot programs at Cornell University, Binghamton University and SUNY Morrisville. [139]

    As of 2017, the hemp industry estimated that annual sales of hemp products were around $820 million annually hemp-derived CBD have been the major force driving this growth. [140]

    Despite this progress, hemp businesses in the US have had difficulties expanding as they have faced challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches. According to a case study done by Forbes, hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana. [141]

    Hemp is possibly one of the earliest plants to be cultivated. [143] [144] An archeological site in the Oki Islands near Japan contained cannabis achenes from about 8000 BC, probably signifying use of the plant. [145] Hemp use archaeologically dates back to the Neolithic Age in China, with hemp fiber imprints found on Yangshao culture pottery dating from the 5th millennium BC. [142] [146] The Chinese later used hemp to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper. [142] The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation. [147]

    Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa, "grew and was known in the Neolithic period all across the northern latitudes, from Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine) to East Asia (Tibet and China)," but, "textile use of Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age." [148] "I strongly suspect, however, that what catapulted hemp to sudden fame and fortune as a cultigen and caused it to spread rapidly westwards in the first millennium B.C. was the spread of the habit of pot-smoking from somewhere in south-central Asia, where the drug-bearing variety of the plant originally occurred. The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause." [149]

    Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd century were familiar with the cultivation of hemp, as witnessed by a reference to it in the Mishna (Kil'ayim 2:5) as a variety of plant, along with Arum, that sometimes takes as many as three years to grow from a seedling. In late medieval Germany and Italy, hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes, or boiled in a soup. [150] Hemp in later Europe was mainly cultivated for its fibers and was used for ropes on many ships, including those of Christopher Columbus. The use of hemp as a cloth was centered largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns.

    The Spaniards brought hemp to the Americas and cultivated it in Chile starting about 1545. [151] Similar attempts were made in Peru, Colombia, and Mexico, but only in Chile did the crop find success. [152] In July 1605, Samuel Champlain reported the use of grass and hemp clothing by the (Wampanoag) people of Cape Cod and the (Nauset) people of Plymouth Bay told him they harvested hemp in their region where it grew wild to a height of 4 to 5 ft. [153] In May 1607, "hempe" was among the crops Gabriel Archer observed being cultivated by the natives at the main Powhatan village, where Richmond, Virginia is now situated [154] and in 1613, Samuell Argall reported wild hemp "better than that in England" growing along the shores of the upper Potomac. As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow "both English and Indian" hemp on their plantations. [155] The Puritans are first known to have cultivated hemp in New England in 1645. [151]

    United States Edit

    George Washington pushed for the growth of hemp as it was a cash crop commonly used to make rope and fabric. In May 1765 he noted in his diary about the sowing of seeds each day until mid-April. Then he recounts the harvest in October which he grew 27 bushels that year.

    It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [sic] the Male from the Female hemp at Do.&—rather too late" is evidence that he was trying to grow female plants for the THC found in the flowers. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that "This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger" [156] In subsequent days, he describes soaking the hemp [157] (to make the fibers usable) and harvesting the seeds, [158] suggesting that he was growing hemp for industrial purposes, not recreational.

    George Washington also imported the Indian hemp plant from Asia, which was used for fiber and, by some growers, for intoxicating resin production. In a 1796 letter to William Pearce who managed the plants for him, Washington says, "What was done with the Indian Hemp plant from last summer? It ought, all of it, to be sown again that not only a stock of seed sufficient for my own purposes might have been raised, but to have disseminated seed to others as it is more valuable than common hemp." [159] [160]

    Other presidents known to have farmed hemp for alternative purposes include Thomas Jefferson, [161] James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Zachary Taylor, and Franklin Pierce. [162]

    Historically, hemp production had made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky's economy. Before the American Civil War, many slaves worked on plantations producing hemp. [163]

    In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed in the United States, levying a tax on anyone who dealt commercially in cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. The passing of the Act to destroy the U.S. hemp industry has been disputed to involve businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst and the Du Pont family. [164] [165] [166]

    One claim is that Hearst believed [ dubious – discuss ] that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator that he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper. [164] [167] Historical research indicates this fear was unfounded because improvements of the decorticators in the 1930s – machines that separated the fibers from the hemp stem – could not make hemp fiber a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. Further, decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production. [168] [164]

    Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont's new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed [ dubious – discuss ] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success. [164] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] DuPont and many industrial historians dispute a link between nylon and hemp, nylon became immediately a scarce commodity. [ clarification needed ] Nylon had characteristics that could be used for toothbrushes (sold from 1938) and very thin nylon fiber could compete with silk and rayon in various textiles normally not produced from hemp fiber, such as very thin stockings for women. [168] [176] [177] [178] [179]

    While the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 had just been signed into law, the United States Department of Agriculture lifted the tax on hemp cultivation during WW II. [180] Before WW II, the U.S. Navy used Jute and Manila Hemp from the Philippines and Indonesia for the cordage on their ships. During the war, Japan cut off those supply lines. [181] America was forced to turn inward and revitalize the cultivation of Hemp on U.S. soils.

    Hemp was used extensively by the United States during World War II to make uniforms, canvas, and rope. [182] Much of the hemp used was cultivated in Kentucky and the Midwest. During World War II, the U.S. produced a short 1942 film, Hemp for Victory, promoting hemp as a necessary crop to win the war. [181] U.S. farmers participated in the campaign to increase U.S. hemp production to 36,000 acres in 1942. [183] This increase amounted to more than 20 times the production in 1941 before the war effort. [183]

    In the United States, Executive Order 12919 (1994) identified hemp as a strategic national product that should be stockpiled. [184]

    The 2018 Farm Bill (pdf) directed USDA to establish a national regulatory framework for hemp production in the United States. [185]

    The 2018 Farm Bill changed federal policy regarding hemp, including the removal of hemp from the Controlled Substances Act and the consideration of hemp as an agricultural product. The bill legalized hemp under certain restrictions and defined hemp as the plant species Cannabis sativa L. with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis. Previously, the 2014 Farm Bill provided a definition for hemp and allowed for state departments of agriculture or universities to grow and produce hemp as part of research or pilot programs.

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) oversees hemp cultivation as the responsible federal regulatory agency. In October 2019, the USDA issued an interim final rule outlining a federal program for growing hemp. The USDA was set to issue a final rule after the 2020 crop season. The rule reemphasizes an earlier USDA ruling that interstate transportation is legal, even if the shipment travels through a state that does allow the growing of hemp. [186]

    USDA published a final rule on January 19, 2021, that provides regulations for the production of hemp in the United States and is effective on March 22, 2021. The final rule builds on the interim final rule published October 31, 2019, that established the U.S. Domestic Hemp Production Program. The final rule incorporates modifications based on public comments and lessons learned during the 2020 growing season. [185]

    Key provisions of the final rule include:

    • Negligent violation – producers must dispose of plants that exceed the acceptable hemp THC level. However, if the plant tests at or below the negligent threshold stated in the rule, producer will not have committed a negligent violation. The final rule raises the negligence threshold from .5 percent to 1 percent and limits the maximum number of negligent violations that a producer can receive in a growing season (calendar year) to one. [185]
    • Disposal and remediation of non-compliant plants – the final rule allows for alternative disposal methods for non-compliant plants that do not require using a DEA reverse distributor or law enforcement and expands the disposal and remediation measures available to producers. AMS will provide acceptable remediation techniques in a separate guidance document. [185]
    • Testing using DEA-registered laboratories – there are an insufficient number of DEA-registered laboratories to test all the anticipated hemp that will be produced in 2020 and possibly 2021. DEA has agreed to extend the enforcement flexibility allowing non-DEA registered labs to test hemp until January 1, 2022 and is processing lab registration applications quickly to get more labs testing hemp DEA-registered. [185]
    • Timing of sample collection – the IFR stated a 15-day window to collect samples before harvest. The FR extends this requirement to 30 days before harvest. [185]
    • Sampling method – stakeholders requested that samples may be taken from a greater part of the plant or the entire plant. They also requested sampling from a smaller number of plants. The FR allow states and tribes to adopt a performance-based approach to sampling in their plans. The plan must be submitted to USDA for approval. It may take into consideration state seed certification programs, history of producer compliance and other factors determined by the State or Tribe. [185]
    • Extent of Tribal Regulatory Authority over the Territory of the Indian Tribe – the IFR did not specifically address whether a tribe with an approved USDA plan could exercise primary regulatory authority over the production of hemp across all its territory or only lands over which it has inherent jurisdiction. The final rule provides that a tribe may exercise jurisdiction and therefore regulatory authority over the production of hemp throughout its territory regardless of the extent of its inherent regulatory authority. [185]

    Updates to Federal Regulations for Domestic Hemp Production Program Edit

    USDA published a final rule on January 19, 2021, that provides regulations for the production of hemp in the United States and is effective on March 22, 2021. The final rule builds on the interim final rule published October 31, 2019, that established the U.S. Domestic Hemp Production Program. The final rule incorporates modifications based on public comments and lessons learned during the 2020 growing season. [185] A Youtube webinar outlines key provisions of the rule. [185]

    1942 United States Department of Agriculture War Board Letter of appreciation to Joe "Daddy Burt" Burton, a Kentucky hemp farmer for his support of the World War II Hemp for Victory campaign. [187]

    Joe "Daddy Burt" Burton, a recognized top Kentucky hemp farmer with harvested hemp, 1942. Photo by USDA War Board - Lexington, KY [188]

    United States "Marihuana" production permit. In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited, but during World War II farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for cordage, to replace Manila hemp previously obtained from Japanese-controlled areas. The U.S. government produced a film explaining the uses of hemp, called Hemp for Victory.

    Historical cultivation Edit

    Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production of hemp in the West took off in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England. [189] Because of colonial and naval expansion of the era, economies needed large quantities of hemp for rope and oakum. In the early 1940s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from 250 000 to 350 000 metric tonnes, Russia was the biggest producer. [168]

    In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibers. [190] Speculation about the potential for commercial cultivation of hemp in large quantities has been criticized due to successful competition from other fibers for many products. The world production of hemp fiber fell from over 300,000 metric tons 1961 to about 75,000 metric tons in the early 1990s and has after that been stable at that level. [191]

    Japan Edit

    In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC). Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa (Japanese: 麻 ), as a beautiful plant. In 1948, marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. Though these laws against marijuana are some of the world's strictest, allowing five years imprisonment for possession of the drug, they exempt hemp growers, whose crop is used to make robes for Buddhist monks and loincloths for Sumo wrestlers. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question. [192]

    Portugal Edit

    The cultivation of hemp in Portuguese lands began around the fourteenth century. [ citation needed ] The raw material was used for the preparation of rope and plugs for the Portuguese ships. Portugal also utilized its colonies to support its hemp supply, including in certain parts of Brazil. [193]

    In order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet after the Restoration of Independence in 1640, King John IV put a renewed emphasis on the growing of hemp. He ordered the creation of the Royal Linen and Hemp Factory in the town of Torre de Moncorvo to increase production and support the effort. [194]

    In 1971, the cultivation of hemp became illegal, and the production was substantially reduced. Because of EU regulations 1308/70, 619/71 and 1164/89, this law was revoked (for some certified seed varieties). [195]

    Medical Marijuana Metabolized: How Marijuana is Absorbed, Metabolized, and Eliminated from the Body

    Medical marijuana can be absorbed into the body in different ways depending on which method you are using. Each method (inhaling, tinctures, capsules, edibles) all have their benefits and drawbacks. Medical marijuana is metabolized differently through each method. If will take shorter or longer to enter the body and can be felt for a different duration of time.

    How Marijuana is Absorbed

    Into the Body

    Before cannabis can be metabolized into the body, work its magic, and is then eliminated, it must be absorbed into the body.

    Inhaled Cannabis

    Inhaling cannabis produces the fastest absorption rate. Inhaled methods include smoking, vaping, or dabbing. When inhaled, medical marijuana is detectable in the bloodstream mere seconds after inhalation. The peak amount of cannabinoids are present in the bloodstream 6 to 7 minutes after inhaling. Holding your breath before exhaling is shown to increase the absorption of cannabinoids in the system. However, this may irritate the lungs or produce and aggravate coughs, which could be undesirable for some people. Inhaling cannabis produces the highest absorption rates.

    Tinctures are absorbed through the tissue under the tongue and in the mouth. The effects of tinctures can be felt within 5 to 15 minutes after administering the drops under the tongue. Peak concentrations of cannabinoids in the blood are not reached until four hours after administration with tinctures. Therefore, while inhaling provides a better absorption rate, it has a much shorter duration of effects than tinctures, which can last for a total of 4 to 8 hours after using them. However, both tinctures and inhaled methods offer excellent absorption of both cannabinoids and terpenes in the cannabis plant.

    Capsules and Edibles

    Medical marijuana that is eaten or swallowed, such as capsules and edibles, have the most unpredictable absorption rates of medical cannabis and cause the biggest loss of terpenes and other medically beneficial compounds in cannabis. Edibles and capsules are absorbed gastrointestinally or through the stomach.

    A lot of the rate of absorption and time to feel the effects is dependent on the individual’s metabolism, weight, and unique gastrointestinal organs. Peak blood concentrations of cannabinoids occur most often in 2 hours, but some people may need up to 7 hours or more to achieve peak concentrations.

    A drawback of these methods is that almost all terpenes and some cannabinoids are lost through stomach acid and digestive enzymes during digestion. After that the liver metabolizes cannabinoids and changes them further before they actually reach the bloodstream. Even though the peak effects that longer to happen, cannabis absorbed in this manner lasts much longer. The effects of capsules and edibles can be felt for about 8 hours in total, much longer than inhaled methods.

    For capsules and edibles high in THC, when the liver breaks down THC it is converted into a more psychoactive, intoxicating form of THC. This makes the effects last longer and the experience more intense and intoxicating. For this reason and variations in how each person’s body metabolizes food and ingested substances, edibles and capsules are the most unpredictable methods.

    How Medical Marijuana is Metabolized

    Once medical cannabis is absorbed through any of these methods, about 90% of the cannabinoids bind to proteins in blood plasma. They are then distributed throughout the body.

    This is where they interact with the endocannabinoid system and other areas that have a lot of blood vessels, such as the heart or liver. Interestingly enough, only 1% of the THC consumed will be delivered to the brain.

    At this point, cannabinoids can begin to regulate the health and homeostasis of our most important organs and systems. Cannabinoids in cannabis (THC, CBD, CBG, CBN, THCV, etc.) act as the keys that open cannabinoid receptors, the locks of the endocannabinoid system. They treat or relieve medical symptoms and serve their medical uses.

    The endocannabinoid system is the most important regulatory system of the body. It was considered a breakthrough for human biology when it was discovered in the 1990s.

    Understanding the endocannabinoid system and its receptors is vital to understanding why cannabis is an effective medicine for so many conditions.

    Use these links for information about the endocannabinoid system, its receptors, and specific actions within this amazing system:

    How Medical Marijuana is Eliminated from the Body

    After cannabis is absorbed, metabolized, and the effects wear off the cannabinoids are eliminated from our systems, however this takes some time. They are eliminated from the bloodstream within 50 hours after use but can still be present in other parts of the body for weeks.

    These compounds, mostly the non-psychoactive compounds in cannabis, are eventually eliminated by the body through urine and feces. 30% are eliminated by urine and 70% through feces.

    Although many employers have dropped testing for marijuana and several states have non-discrimination laws for medical marijuana patients, medical marijuana can be detected for several weeks, especially in chronic, heavy users. Keep this in mind if your employer requires drug testing and your state doesn’t have workplace non-discrimination laws for medical marijuana patients. These laws prohibit employers from making hiring and firing decisions based on marijuana use for medical marijuana patients.

    Find more patient resources for using cannabis for wellness and as medicine:

    Our Mission

    Sabina Holistic Health is a nonprofit that provides financial assistance to medical marijuana patients with serious medical conditions that are approved in their states. All patients who need medical cannabis should be able to access it affordably. If you or a loved one need assistance, we may be able to help. Request medical cannabis assistance or donate to patients with serious medical conditions.

    Disclaimer: This post gives information about medical marijuana as demonstrated through scientific study and reported by doctors and patients. This content is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment.

    Blesching, Uwe. The Cannabis Health Index: Combining the Science of Medical Marijuana with Mindfulness Techniques to Heal 100 Chronic Symptoms and Diseases. North Atlantic Books, 2015.

    Backes, M., Weil, A., & McCue, J. D. (2017). Cannabis pharmacy: the practical guide to medical marijuana. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers.

    Moskowitz, M. H. (2017). Medical cannabis: a guide for patients, practitioners, and caregivers. Virginia Beach, VA: Koehler Books.

    Your scent is like cannabis when you consume marijuana

    Is there a way to enjoy weed without smelling like one? Because you prefer to smoke cannabis sativa rather than take it orally, it would be harder to remove the strong cannabis odor from your home and on your person.

    Sativas are known to be the most flavorful but the smelliest strains of all. If you are producing cannabis stealthily indoors or outdoors, it could be very difficult to hide cannabis sativa strains because of its strong smell.

    And to make things worse, you need to take care of the smell to abide by local cannabis growing rules if you live in Canada. It’s usually a challenge to control the smell but growers succeed by using carbon filters or by opening a window or door.

    The Original Solventless Concentrate

    Compared to dried flowers, concentrates are more potent forms of cannabis. While many popular concentrates on the retail market like butane hash oil (BHO), shatter, wax, and CO2 oil, are created using solvents like butane or carbon dioxide (CO2), trichomes by themselves are the original solventless-cannabis-concentrate.

    As soon as the tiny granules are removed from the plant, the trichomes begin to die, forming what is more commonly known as kief. In this process, they become less sticky and take on a dust-like texture. Kief is also the residue stuck to the sides of the jar, at the bottom of the grinder, and on your fingers after touching plant material.

    Some extraction methods, especially those involving butane, leave residual solvents in the final product — even if only in trace amounts. While deemed safe when lab results measure levels below a certain threshold, some recreational users and medical patients suffering from conditions like breast cancer or HIV prefer to steer clear of products created with such solvents. Unlike the concentrates that are made using gas extraction methods, solventless-products like kief, rosin, or bubble hash are often considered to be cleaner, healthier options.

    Many cannabis consumers like to sprinkle a little bit of kief in a joint or on top of a bowl, but it can also be made into other forms of solventless concentrates like rosin or bubble hash. Rosin is made in a simple process using high heat and immense pressure. Commercial producers use a technical machine called a rosin press, but it can also be made at home using simple tools like a hair straightener or iron and parchment paper.
    Bubble hash is another form of cannabis concentrate made by harvesting trichomes. Instead of heat and pressure, bubble hash is created using ice water, a little turbulence, and a screen or bubble hash bag.

    Is sativa or indica worse for your heart rate?

    It’s conventional wisdom in cannabis that sativa strains are upbeat and indica strains are mellow and likely to induce the “couch lock” sensation. Countless cannabis consumers use these characterizations to shape their consumption or purchasing decisions

    Unfortunately, there isn’t much scientific evidence to support this notion of indica vs sativa as a method of distinguishing between the effects of different types of cannabis. While there are many factors at play in determining why a cannabis chemovar produces certain effects, calling them indica or sativa is not one.

    What does matter is the cannabinoid profile of the chemovar (how much THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids) and its terpene makeup. The various terpenes in cannabis not only determine its flavor and aroma, but may also have a big impact on its effects, including how energetic or sedative the high is.

    Also, it’s worth keeping in mind that this can be very individualistic. The right dose for one individual can be very different than the right dose for another person, and a strain that makes one person very upbeat and giggly could induce a couch-lock sensation for someone else. And while a specific strain may be very relaxing to one person, another user could experience anxiety or paranoia, but this would not indicate that this is a universally-experienced effect of the cannabis variety in question. The same could be true for increased heart rate.

    The Science Behind The Feeling of Cannabis Euphoria

    Cannabis refers to a group of three plants known to have psychoactive properties these include cannabis Sativa, cannabis Indica, and cannabis ruderalis. It’s a tall Asian herb (Cannabis sativa of the family Cannabaceae, the hemp family) with a tough fiber that is separated into a tall loosely branched species (C. Sativa) the other one is a low-growing densely branched species (C. Indica) hemp, often used for cultivated varieties of having high levels of THC.

    What Are The Different Ways To Consume Cannabis?

    Whilst cannabis comes from a plant that is considered natural, the plant has strong effects, both positive or negative as depending on how the user reacts. There are many different ways of using cannabis such as vaping, smoking, tea, and edibles. Practical examples include cannabis-infused brownies or cannabis-infused oil/cream where you can apply it as a topical treatment. (6 Ways To Consume Cannabis Other Than Smoking)

    Medical and Recreational Benefits

    Research suggests that most people use either the dried leaves or seed oil of the cannabis plant for medicinal and recreational purposes. Medical cannabis has been positively associated with providing users pleasure and relief from certain conditions. Some of these conditions may include chronic pain, depression, insomnia, anxiety, arthritis, chronic pain, fibromyalgia, AIDS, migraines, nausea/vomiting and asthma. The research in this field is still ongoing, with early results trending positively.

    According to the National Institute of Health studies have shown that when one consumes cannabis, it reacts with the pleasure centres in the brain. The stimulation of brain cells that releases dopamine is a result of the euphoria feeling that consuming cannabis produces. Depending on the strain or the amount being consumed, the sensation being felt will differentiate in strength and longevity. For example, when cannabis is smoked, vaped, or inhaled the euphoric sensations tend to be felt immediately, however, when ingested in edible form, it usually takes a bit longer for the dopamine to be released, which is why our start low, go slow motto is especially important when consuming edibles.

    What Is Considered a High?

    A cannabis high is a result of smoking, vaping, or ingesting cannabis. Typically a cannabis high is often associated with inducing users with feelings of relaxation and contentment. However, it is important to note that negative reactions are also possible. Studies have shown that that smoking produces a shorter and more concentrated sensation in comparison to vaping. However, there are a number of factors that can influence one’s experience such as the strength of the cannabis and mode of use.

    How Long Does a High Last?

    How long a cannabis high may be dependent on the number of different factors, including the type of dose, the potency, and the mode of consumptions.

    Studies have shown that it takes around 30-90 minutes before one starts to feel the effects of cannabis edibles. And the high associated with edibles is known to last longer as compared to vaping and smoking high. However, the effects usually ease up within 24 hours. However, when cannabis is smoked or vaped the effects are felt within a few minutes. The high gets at its peak in around 20-30 minutes and this effect normally lasts for about 2-3 hours till it’s gone.

    Modes of cannabis consumption and how long their high last

    MethodOnsetPeakTotal duration
    Smoking and VapingWithin minutes20 to 30 minutes2 to 3 hours
    Edibles30 to 90 minutes3 hoursWithin 24 hours

    What Is a Cannabis Strain?

    Cannabis strains refer to those varieties with recreational and medicinal use. Such varieties have been cultivated mostly to contain a high percentage of cannabinoids. These varieties of cannabis include hemp which is known to have a very low cannabinoid content and is grown mainly for its fiber and seeds.

    Cannabis strains are either pure or hybrid plants. Strains of cannabis that are used mostly in the medical cannabis community are broken up into three distinct groups: Sativa, Indica, and Hybrid. There is another strain called ruderalis, however, it isn’t referenced too much, due to it not having much effect on humans.

    Normally, the distinct groups of cannabis are one way for medicinal consumers to better understand cannabis and its overall effects. The Sativa group of cannabis plants is known for providing an uplifting cerebral effect, the Indica cannabis plants are more relaxing, and hybrid types often combine a bit of both Indica and Sativa strains to offer the best of both worlds

    Choosing a Strain

    Choosing a strain is mainly dependent on the effects one desires to get. As cannabis has a range of medical uses, Some strains are better for certain conditions than others.

    It’s worthwhile to research the potential adverse effects of the strain of interest before usage. Most of the common strains below have possible adverse effects like dry mouth, dry eyes, and dizziness. Cannabis also has the potential to interact with medications you might be taking. Users are however advised not to use or operate any machinery while on cannabis.

    Types of strains

    Known for a high energizing, as a mood-lifting strain. Sour diesel pushes you into a burst of productive energy. It also has destressing and pain-relieving effects.

    This is yet another highly relaxing strain. Most praised for its insomnia-fighting and stress-reducing results. This strain also gives users feelings of euphoria and increases hunger, which is deemed as a merit for lacking appetite.

    This strain does help users feel super relaxed, but energetic and more creative. It also reduces fatigue as well as making it great for days when users need to be productive.

    Having its Origin in Acapulco, Mexico, this is a well-known and highly praised strain of cannabis. It’s known for its euphoric and energizing effects. It also helps to reduce fatigue, stress, pain, and nausea

    This is a relaxing and soothing strain. Just perfect for pain or cramps relief, or if one is having inflammation that is causing them to fail to sleep. It’s also a mood-lifting strain and gives users that euphoric feeling.

    This type is well known for inducing a state of bliss leading to feeling relaxed, happy, and sleepy. Mostly this type of strain is used to reduce pain and muscle spasms. The sedative effects this strain has is great to combat insomnia

    How Our Body Reacts With Cannabis Leading To Sensations of Euphoria

    A conclusion that came from the study is that cannabis may enhance users to think divergently. Some users have the ability to make connections out of seemingly unrelated concepts. Such activities are known to primarily take place in the right hemisphere of the brain where cognitive processes like creativity or understanding occur. Research shows that such thoughts seem to help blood flow during and after a cannabis intake, which can lead to situations where one may feel euphoric.

    The euphoric effect has been found as the most common reason people choose to consume cannabis. When one engages in activities such as consuming a mood-elevating substance like exercising or successfully completing a daunting task, our brains release dopamine or the “feel good” hormone

    Why Does It Make Us Feel Euphoric?

    Studies have shown that Anandamide is the reason why users get that feeling of happiness as a result of consuming cannabis. This chemical was first coined by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam in 1992.

    Our brains have been known to contain anandamide and other cannabis-like chemicals that are in charge of triggering happiness and euphoria state. It works as an anti-anxiety and antidepressant agent.

    Anandamide is responsible for the release of glutamate and acetylcholine within our cortex and hippocampus. The presence of cannabinoid receptors greatly enhances the release of dopamine. This process plays a critical role in the ability of cannabis to produce euphoria.

    Anandamide is known to produce a heightened sense of joy and happiness, hence being referred to as the “bliss molecule.” The word anandamide is derived from the Sanskrit word “ananda,” which translates to “joy” or “bliss.”This chemical is responsible for much other than happiness. Anandamide also plays important roles in memory, motivation, movement, pain, appetite, fertility, even potentially inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. But it’s because of its role in neurogenesis — the formation of new nerve cells. However, unlike other neuro

    Alternative Perspective On Why We Feel Euphoria

    Additionally, there’s another perspective on why Cannabis may make us feel euphoric and it comes from the phenomenon coined by Potter and Dan Joy. The “detached perspective” is an ability to see the world from an altered perspective. In this perspective, they go on to explain that cannabis allows users to interpret their surroundings and experiences differently than they normally would, thus allowing them to lead to feelings of euphoria.

    It is important to highlight that different cannabis strains are known to induce a specific euphoric feeling as they include a mixture of certain cannabinoids. A euphoric state may include a feeling of bliss, laughter, sensitive sensory perception, or a perceived deeper appreciation for life. The euphoric feeling can last from a few seconds to a few hours, and that’s dependent on how much the user consumes, one’s body weight/fat, users’ metabolism, whether the user has eaten or not and not forgetting the quantity of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) it contains. It is important to remember, everyone reacts to cannabis differently!

    Is Medical Cannabis Right for You?

    Research has shown medical cannabis to have a positive effect on a range of medical conditions such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, pain, and many more. Our healthcare practitioners will be able to assess your suitability and eligibility for medical cannabis. Read more about assessments here.

    Experts argue that Sativa and Indica are the same species of cannabis

    USP has elected to recognize cannabis as a single plant species, Cannabis sativa L. , with different varieties or subtypes that can then be classified based on their THC and CBD content. The expert panel provided guidance for organizing the plant material into three “chemotype” categories: THC-dominant, CBD-dominant, or intermediate varieties that contain physiologically meaningful levels of both – intending to give prescribers or consumers greater clarity about what substances they are using.

    Is there a super renaming of cannabis strains on the cards?

    In order to properly identify and quantify these cannabis varieties, USP’s expert panel recommended the use of science-based analytical procedures for the industry to employ. This entails the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) to separate and quantify not just THC and CBD, but also 11 other cannabinoids that are less studied, but may also have an impact on the effect of cannabis products.

    Start Low Go Slow

    To maximize the benefits of cannabis tea, it’s best to follow the same rule given to those trying edibles for the first time. Start with a small amount and low dosage, especially if consuming THC tea. Then keep in mind that marijuana tea effects can take an hour or more to kick in.

    From a soothing, non-psychoactive CBD tea to a cannabis-infused chai that tastes great and soothes the drinker off to sleep, the flavors and effects of marijuana tea can vary wildly depending on how it’s brewed. This makes it an excellent medicine or treat for those looking for something beyond a pipe, brownie, or bong.


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