Information

8.1: Introduction to the Respiratory System - Biology

8.1: Introduction to the Respiratory System - Biology


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • List the structures of the respiratory system
  • List the major functions of the respiratory system
  • Outline the forces that allow for air movement into and out of the lungs
  • Outline the process of gas exchange
  • Summarize the process of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport within the respiratory system
  • Create a flow chart illustrating how respiration is controlled
  • Discuss how the respiratory system responds to exercise
  • Describe the development of the respiratory system in the embryo

Hold your breath. Really! See how long you can hold your breath as you continue reading. How long can you do it? Chances are you are feeling uncomfortable already. A typical human cannot survive without breathing for more than 3 minutes, and even if you wanted to hold your breath longer, your autonomic nervous system would take control. This is because every cell in the body needs to run the oxidative stages of cellular respiration, the process by which energy is produced in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For oxidative phosphorylation to occur, oxygen is used as a reactant and carbon dioxide is released as a waste product.

You may be surprised to learn that although oxygen is a critical need for cells, it is actually the accumulation of carbon dioxide that primarily drives your need to breathe. Carbon dioxide is exhaled and oxygen is inhaled through the respiratory system, which includes muscles to move air into and out of the lungs, passageways through which air moves, and microscopic gas exchange surfaces covered by capillaries. The circulatory system transports gases from the lungs to tissues throughout the body and vice versa. A variety of diseases can affect the respiratory system, such as asthma, emphysema, chronic obstruction pulmonary disorder (COPD), and lung cancer. All of these conditions affect the gas exchange process and result in labored breathing and other difficulties.


8.1: Introduction to the Respiratory System - Biology

Respiration - Process of gas exchange

1. Movement of air into the lungs
2. External respiration (blood and air)
3. Gas transport in blood
4. Internal respiration (blood and body cells)

Why do we need oxygen? What is cellular respiration?

Where does cellular respiration occur?

16.2 Organs of the Respiratory System

Upper Respiratory Tract - nose, sinuses, pharynx
Lower Respiratory Tract - larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs

Nose – bones and cartilage support nose, two openings (nostrils) | What is the purpose of hair inside the nose?

_______________________ – hollow space behind the nose | ___________________________ – divides the nose (bone)

What is a deviated septum?

Nasal concha – bones that divide the nasal cavity, support the mucus membrane and increase surface area (superior, middle, inferior)

What happens to particles that are trapped by the mucus membranes?

Paranasal Sinuses - spaces within the bones, reduce weight of skull, resonance (voice)

They are named after the bones (4):

Pharynx - behind the oral cavity, 3 sections:

Larynx - at top of trachea, vocal cords

Muscles and cartilage support the structure: _______________ (Adam's apple) , ________________ and ____________________ cartilage

Glottis: part of the larynx that consists of the _______________________ and the ________________ between them.

What is the purpose of the false vocal folds?

What is the purpose of the true vocal folds?

Epiglottis: allows air to enter the larynx, it closes during ________________________

What is laryngitis?

Trachea (windpipe) - cylinder with cartilage to keep it from collapsing, it leads to the _____________________________

Bronchii (bronchial tubes)

Primary bronchi → secondary bronchi → tertiary bronchi → _________________________

Bronchioles hae air sacs attached to them called _________________________, which are connected to the _________________________ system via capillaries.

Lungs - spongy tissue that sits within the _____________________ cavity.

Right lung = ____ lobes | Left lung = 2 lobes and a space for the heart called the _____________ notch

_______________ fluid lubricates the lungs during breathing

16. 3 Breathing Mechanism

1. ________________ moves down, forcing air into airways
2. Intercostals contract, enlarging cavity.
3. Surface tension in alveoli and ___________________ keep air sacs from collapsing
4. Other muscles force a deeper breath.
5. Relaxing the diaphragm causes _________________________ (exhalation)

Why is the first breath of a newborn the most difficult?

Atmospheric Pressure - necessary for breathing, low air pressure makes it difficult to fill lungs

Pneumothorax = collapsed lung, it is caused by a hole in the __________________ cavity.

Non Respiratory Movements - coughing, sneezing, hiccup, yawn

Respiratory Air Volumes - ________________________ measures the volume of air moving in and out of the lungs

Respiratory cycle = 1 inspiration and 1 experiation

Resting Tidal Volume =

Reserve Volumes =

How does a respirometer work?

16.4 Control of Breathing

Breathing is an involuntary act, the muscles are under _____________________ control (we can choose to hold our breath)

Respiratory Center – groups of __________________________in the brain that control inspiration and expiration, in the medulla and pons

Medulla Rhythmicity Area – two neuron groups extend the length of the medulla oblongata

Dorsal Respiratory Group – controls basic rhythm | Ventral Respiratory Group – forceful expiration
Pneumotaxic Area (Pons) – _______________respiratation

Factors that can effect breathing =

What is hyperventilation? What should you do if you hyperventilate?

16.5 Alveolar Gas Exchange

Respiratory Membrane - gas exchange occurs through a layer of simple _______________ cells, oxygen then _________________into blood

Hypoxia = ovreall lack of oxygen in the tissues and organs

Asphyxia = unable to breathe normally, which then causes hypoxia

16.6 Illnesses Related to the Respiratory System

1. Cystic Fibrosis
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
3. Bronchitis
4. Emphysema
5. Sleep Apnea
6. Lung Cancer
7. Altitude Sickness
8. Asthma
9. Bacterial or Viral Infections
10. Whooping Cough

/>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


8.1: Introduction to the Respiratory System - Biology

Breathing is an involuntary event. How often a breath is taken and how much air is inhaled or exhaled are tightly regulated by the respiratory center in the brain. Humans, when they aren’t exerting themselves, breathe approximately 15 times per minute on average. Canines, like the dog in Figure 1, have a respiratory rate of about 15–30 breaths per minute. With every inhalation, air fills the lungs, and with every exhalation, air rushes back out. That air is doing more than just inflating and deflating the lungs in the chest cavity. The air contains oxygen that crosses the lung tissue, enters the bloodstream, and travels to organs and tissues. Oxygen (O2) enters the cells where it is used for metabolic reactions that produce ATP, a high-energy compound. At the same time, these reactions release carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product. CO2 is toxic and must be eliminated. Carbon dioxide exits the cells, enters the bloodstream, travels back to the lungs, and is expired out of the body during exhalation.

Figure 1. Lungs, which appear as nearly transparent tissue surrounding the heart in this X-ray of a dog (left), are the central organs of the respiratory system. The left lung is smaller than the right lung to accommodate space for the heart. A dog’s nose (right) has a slit on the side of each nostril. When tracking a scent, the slits open, blocking the front of the nostrils. This allows the dog to exhale though the now-open area on the side of the nostrils without losing the scent that is being followed. (credit a: modification of work by Geoff Stearns credit b: modification of work by Cory Zanker)


Introduction

Lungs, which appear as nearly transparent tissue surrounding the heart in this X-ray of a dog (left), are the central organs of the respiratory system. The left lung is smaller than the right lung to accommodate space for the heart. A dog’s nose (right) has a slit on the side of each nostril. When tracking a scent, the slits open, blocking the front of the nostrils. This allows the dog to exhale though the now-open area on the side of the nostrils without losing the scent that is being followed. (credit a: modification of work by Geoff Stearns credit b: modification of work by Cory Zanker)

Breathing is an involuntary event. How often a breath is taken and how much air is inhaled or exhaled are tightly regulated by the respiratory center in the brain. Humans, when they aren’t exerting themselves, breathe approximately 15 times per minute on average. Canines, like the dog in Figure, have a respiratory rate of about 15–30 breaths per minute. With every inhalation, air fills the lungs, and with every exhalation, air rushes back out. That air is doing more than just inflating and deflating the lungs in the chest cavity. The air contains oxygen that crosses the lung tissue, enters the bloodstream, and travels to organs and tissues. Oxygen (O2) enters the cells where it is used for metabolic reactions that produce ATP, a high-energy compound. At the same time, these reactions release carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product. CO2 is toxic and must be eliminated. Carbon dioxide exits the cells, enters the bloodstream, travels back to the lungs, and is expired out of the body during exhalation.


Direct diffusion

For small multicellular organisms, diffusion across the outer membrane is sufficient to meet their oxygen needs. Gas exchange by direct diffusion across surface membranes is efficient for organisms less than 1 mm in diameter. In simple organisms, such as cnidarians and flatworms, every cell in the body is close to the external environment. Their cells are kept moist and gases diffuse quickly via direct diffusion. Flatworms are small, literally flatworms, which ‘breathe’ through diffusion across the outer membrane (Figure 2.3). The flat shape of these organisms increases the surface area for diffusion, ensuring that each cell within the body is close to the outer membrane surface and has access to oxygen. If the flatworm had a cylindrical body, then the cells in the center would not be able to get oxygen.

Figure 2.3. This flatworm’s process of respiration works by diffusion across the outer membrane. (credit: Stephen Childs)

Earthworms and amphibians use their skin (integument) as a respiratory organ. A dense network of capillaries lies just below the skin and facilitates gas exchange between the external environment and the circulatory system. The respiratory surface must be kept moist in order for the gases to dissolve and diffuse across cell membranes. Organisms that live in water need to obtain oxygen from the water. Oxygen dissolves in water but at a lower concentration than in the atmosphere. The atmosphere has roughly 21 percent oxygen. In water, the oxygen concentration is much smaller than that.


Chapter 20. The Respiratory System

Figure 20.1.
Lungs, which appear as nearly transparent tissue surrounding the heart in this X-ray of a dog (left), are the central organs of the respiratory system. The left lung is smaller than the right lung to accommodate space for the heart. A dog’s nose (right) has a slit on the side of each nostril. When tracking a scent, the slits open, blocking the front of the nostrils. This allows the dog to exhale though the now-open area on the side of the nostrils without losing the scent that is being followed. (credit a: modification of work by Geoff Stearns credit b: modification of work by Cory Zanker)

Introduction

Breathing is an involuntary event. How often a breath is taken and how much air is inhaled or exhaled are tightly regulated by the respiratory center in the brain. Humans, when they aren’t exerting themselves, breathe approximately 15 times per minute on average. Canines, like the dog in Figure 20.1, have a respiratory rate of about 15–30 breaths per minute. With every inhalation, air fills the lungs, and with every exhalation, air rushes back out. That air is doing more than just inflating and deflating the lungs in the chest cavity. The air contains oxygen that crosses the lung tissue, enters the bloodstream, and travels to organs and tissues. Oxygen (O2) enters the cells where it is used for metabolic reactions that produce ATP, a high-energy compound. At the same time, these reactions release carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product. CO2 is toxic and must be eliminated. Carbon dioxide exits the cells, enters the bloodstream, travels back to the lungs, and is expired out of the body during exhalation.


Lesson Plan Resources

Interactive Biology

Leslie Samuel is the Foundation Science Coordinator in the Doctor of Physical Therapy program at Andrews University, and the creator of the Interactive Biology website.

Leslie Samuel is the Foundation Science Coordinator in the Doctor of Physical Therapy program at Andrews University, and the creator of the Interactive Biology website. He started the site because of his passion for biology and his enthusiasm for “Making Biology Fun”, which is the tagline of the site. The site is used by tens of thousands of people all over the world to supplement their education. From high school students all the way up to Med School students and beyond. It contains resources such as biology videos, PowerPoints, articles, lectures, handouts and games. The topics range from general biology to physiology, pathology to neuroscience, and the library is growing every week, with writers who publish articles to the site every weekday.


Anatomy

What are the parts of the respiratory system?

The respiratory system has many different parts that work together to help you breathe. Each group of parts has many separate components.

Your airways deliver air to your lungs. Your airways are a complicated system that includes your:

  • Mouth and nose: Openings that pull air from outside your body into your respiratory system.
  • Sinuses: Hollow areas between the bones in your head that help regulate the temperature and humidity of the air you inhale.
  • Pharynx (throat): Tube that delivers air from your mouth and nose to the trachea (windpipe).
  • Trachea: Passage connecting your throat and lungs.
  • Bronchial tubes: Tubes at the bottom of your windpipe that connect into each lung.
  • Lungs: Two organs that remove oxygen from the air and pass it into your blood.

From your lungs, your bloodstream delivers oxygen to all your organs and other tissues.

Muscles and bones help move the air you inhale into and out of your lungs. Some of the bones and muscles in the respiratory system include your:

  • Diaphragm: Muscle that helps your lungs pull in air and push it out.
  • Ribs: Bones that surround and protect your lungs and heart.

When you breathe out, your blood carries carbon dioxide and other waste out of the body. Other components that work with the lungs and blood vessels include:

  • Alveoli: Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
  • Bronchioles: Small branches of the bronchial tubes that lead to the alveoli.
  • Capillaries: Blood vessels in the alveoli walls that move oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Lung lobes: Sections of the lungs — three lobes in the right lung and two in the left lung.
  • Pleura: Thin sacs that surround each lung lobe and separate your lungs from the chest wall.

Some of the other components of your respiratory system include:

  • Cilia: Tiny hairs that move in a wave-like motion to filter dust and other irritants out of your airways.
  • Epiglottis: Tissue flap at the entrance to the trachea that closes when you swallow to keep food and liquids out of your airway.
  • Larynx (voice box): Hollow organ that allows you to talk and make sounds when air moves in and out.

The Respiratory System

Some multimedia content, downloadable content, and/or access to additional websites may not be available if accessing this title through ScienceDirect.

Key Features

  • One of the seven volumes in the Systems of the Body series.

  • Concise text covers the core anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in an integrated manner as required by system- and problem-based medical courses.

  • The basic science is presented in the clinical context in a way appropriate for the early part of the medical course.

  • There is a linked website providing self-assessment material ideal for examination preparation.
  • One of the seven volumes in the Systems of the Body series.

  • Concise text covers the core anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in an integrated manner as required by system- and problem-based medical courses.

  • The basic science is presented in the clinical context in a way appropriate for the early part of the medical course.

  • There is a linked website providing self-assessment material ideal for examination preparation.

Respiratory Infection

Respiratory system infections are common as respiratory structures are exposed to the external environment. Respiratory structures sometimes come in contact with infectious agents like bacteria and viruses. These germs infect respiratory tissue causing inflammation and can impact the upper respiratory tract as well as the lower respiratory tract.

The common cold is the most notable type of upper respiratory tract infection. Other types of upper respiratory tract infections include sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils), epiglottitis (inflammation of the epiglottis that covers the trachea), laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx) and influenza.

Lower respiratory tract infections are often far more dangerous than upper respiratory tract infections. Lower respiratory tract structures include the trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs. Bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchial tubes), pneumonia (inflammation of the lung alveoli), tuberculosis, and influenza are types of lower respiratory tract infections.


Watch the video: 059 An Introduction to the Respiratory System (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Tara

    very useful phrase

  2. Taymullah

    I'm sure this has already been discussed, please use the forum search.

  3. Neotolemus

    In my opinion you cheated like the child.

  4. Bridger

    I agree, this is a wonderful phrase.

  5. Lalla

    We can talk on this issue for a long time.



Write a message