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What is the name of this yellow flower?

What is the name of this yellow flower?


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India, It was growing outside.

April 2017

Center part of the flower giving me Heebie-jeebies.


I think this is Cosmos sulphureus which is also known as yellow cosmos or sulfur cosmos. See the image (from here) as comparision:

More information can be found here and here.


What is the name of this yellow flower? - Biology

Scientific name: Arisaema triphyllum
Common name:
Jack-in-the–Pulpit

(Information in this Species Page was compiled by Melissa “Moe” Ortz in Biology 220W, Spring 2002, at Penn State New Kensington)

Jack-in-the–Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) has many common names: arum, Indian turnip, wild turnip (and, “swamp,” “marsh,” “meadow,” and “dragon” turnip, too!), bog onion, brown dragon, devil’s ear, and priest’s pintle. Examining these names gives important insights into both the morphology and the ecology of

the plant: it has a substantial, bulb-like root (called the “corm”) which can be eaten or used in a variety of other ways, it grows in moist habitats, and its flower is unusually and distinctively shaped and colored.

Range and Habitat
Jack-in-the-Pulpit is a long-lived perennial found in the moist, deciduous forests throughout eastern North America. Its range extends from Nova Scotia to the Gulf of Mexico and westward to Minnesota and Louisiana. It prefers soils that are neutral to acid in pH, rich in humus and nutrients, and moist but well aerated (i.e well drained). It is most often found in forests with a diverse under-story plant community which probably reflects the preference of many other plants species for these robust, optimal site conditions. There are four described sub-species that have generalized, overlapping distributions in the northern, southern and western sections of this broad continental range.

Appearance
Jack-in-the-Pulpit’s flowering form consists of a three inch long, columnar structure called the spadix on which the many, tiny, male and female flowers are located. The spadix is encased by a tubular, leaf-like structure called the spathe whose open top is partially covered by a “hood” or flap of leafy tissue. The spathe can be tinted either red or purple and often has brown or white longitudinal stripes and furrows. The hood of the spathe is usually yellow-green but may be very pale in plants growing in higher levels of sunlight. The leaves of the plant are, as the species name defines, found in groups of three leaflets that rise over the top of the spathe. Both the leaflets and the flower arise from a single stalk from the subterranean corm. This stalk, then, branches to form the spathe and the slightly longer leaf stalk. The sub-species of Jack-in-the-Pulpit vary in their spathe and spadix morphologies and colorations and in the colorations of their leaflets.

Reproduction
Jack-in-the-Pulpit reproduces both vegetatively and sexually. In vegetative propagation lateral buds called “cormlets” arise from the parental corm to form new plants. In sexual reproduction pollen from male flowers is transferred to female flowers by a variety of pollinating insects (including collembola, and several species of flies and thrips). The encasing spathe, of course, prevents any wind dispersal of pollen. Male flowers are found in the upper sections of the spadix and female flowers in the lower. In a given plant either male or female flowers predominate. A phenomenon called sequential hermaphroditism (discussed below) coupled with the temporal asynchrony of male and female flower maturation act to inhibit or prevent self-fertilization. In male flowers, a fine dusting of pink pollen accumulates at the bottom of the volume of the spathe.

After pollination, the spathe dies back revealing a cluster of green, berry-like fruit attached to the stalk of the spadix. These fruit turn bright red as they ripen on into the autumn. Each fruit contains a maximum of six ovules, but, on average, only one or two seeds. Not all plants produce seeded fruit. Less than half of the plants in one study were actually found to have fruit that contained seeds and of these seeded fruit over one-third were shriveled and unviable. Speculative explanations for this high level of reproductive failure include low numbers of pollinating insects, pollen-ovum incompatibility, and site nutrient limitations.

Life Cycle and Sequential Hermaphroditism
Jack-in-the-Pulpit displays a distinctive cycle of growth and development in which not only the age of the plant but also the conditions and limitations of its environment determine its relative gender and also its potential fertility. A seedling growing either from a fertilized seed or from a vegetative cormlet will spend from four to six years in a pre-reproductive, vegetative form. As sufficient size is reached after these immature, growth years, the first flowers produced will be male, pollen producing flowers. As the plant continues to grow, though, through subsequent years the larger and larger spadix will begin to produce female flowers and thus then be able to produce seeds and fruit. Increases in nutrient availability or habitat quality will accelerate the transition of male plants into female plants. Decreases, though, in nutrients or habitat quality, or impacting environmental stresses, will cause female plants to revert back to their earlier male form or even back into their pre-flowering, vegetative state. This extremely plastic flowering cycle (called sequential hermaphroditism) ensures that only plants of sufficient size and physiological and genetic quality are capable of reproduction. It also prevents energetically expensive reproduction during times of nutrient deprivation or environmental distress.

The corm of the plant is perennial and very long lived. After a period of winter dormancy (which is broken by a month of at least four degrees C), it extends a new shoot which branches to form spathe and leaflets in the spring and early summer.

Ecological Impact
Jack-in-the-Pulpit contains toxic levels of oxalic acid and asparagines within its tissues. The roots, in particular, have very high levels of these chemicals. The berries, if ingested, cause a burning sensation in the mouth and throat due to physical abrasions in the mucous membranes caused by crystals of calcium oxalate. In spite of these toxins, though, deer potentially do heavily browse Jack-in-the-Pulpit causing extensive damage and destruction. Also, a fungal pathogen (Uromyces aritriphylli) frequently infects the plant causing damage to the corm, the leaflets, and the spathe. An infected plant is easily identified by the presence of bright yellow, spore producing, surface lesions. Impacts of this fungus include reduced growth of the plant and potential flower stage regression, reduced vegetative propagation, and inhibited pollination due to deformations in the spathe and its covering hood. In a given population of Jack-in-the-Pulpit a fourth of the individuals are infected by this fungus. Of the infected female plants, the vast majority are no longer able to produce seeds.

Human use and ingestion of Jack-in-the-Pulpit either takes advantage of the potential medicinal applications of the plant’s toxins (such as use as skin ointments, poultices, or tonics) or follows steps by which these toxins are removed from the plant tissues (drying, roasting, leaching etc). The root, in particular, can be peeled, ground, dried and roasted to make a bread or cereal that has a chocolate-like flavor. The root can also be thinly sliced into chips that are then roasted into edible, chocolate flavored wafers.

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Punnett Squares

A Punnett square is a chart that allows you to easily determine the expected percentage of different genotypes in the offspring of two parents. An example of a Punnett square for pea plants is shown in Figure below. In this example, both parents are heterozygous for flowercolor (Bb). The gametes produced by the male parent are at the top of the chart, and the gametes produced by the female parent are along the side. The different possible combinations of alleles in their offspring are determined by filling in the cells of the Punnett square with the correct letters (alleles). At the link below, you can watch an animation in which Reginald Punnett, inventor of the Punnett square, explains the purpose of his invention and how to use it. http://www.dnalc.org/view/16192-Animation-5-Genetic-inheritance-follows-rules-.html

An explanation of Punnett squares can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5ymMYcLtv0 (25:16). Another example of the use of a Punnett square can be viewed athttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nsHZbgOmVwg (5:40).

This Punnett square shows a cross between two heterozygotes, Bb. Do you know where each letter (allele) in all four cells comes from? Two pea plants, both heterozygous for flower color, are crossed. The offspring will show the dominant purple coloration in a 3:1 ratio. Or, about 75% of the offspring will be purple.

Predicting Offspring Genotypes

In the cross shown in Figure above, you can see that one out of four offspring (25 percent) has the genotype BB, one out of four (25 percent) has the genotype bb, and two out of four (50 percent) have the genotype Bb. These percentages of genotypes are what you would expect in any cross between two heterozygous parents. Of course, when just four offspring are produced, the actual percentages of genotypes may vary by chance from the expected percentages. However, if you considered hundreds of such crosses and thousands of offspring, you would get very close to the expected results, just like tossing a coin.

Predicting Offspring Phenotypes

You can predict the percentages of phenotypes in the offspring of this cross from their genotypes. B is dominant to b, so offspring with either the BB or Bb genotype will have the purple-flower phenotype. Only offspring with the bb genotype will have the white-flower phenotype. Therefore, in this cross, you would expect three out of four (75 percent) of the offspring to have purple flowers and one out of four (25 percent) to have white flowers. These are the same percentages that Mendel got in his first experiment.

Determining Missing Genotypes

A Punnett square can also be used to determine a missing genotype based on the other genotypes involved in a cross. Suppose you have a parent plant with purple flowers and a parent plant with white flowers. Because the b allele is recessive, you know that the white-flowered parent must have the genotype bb. The purple-flowered parent, on the other hand, could have either the BB or the Bb genotype. The Punnett square in Figure below shows this cross. The question marks (?) in the chart could be either B or b alleles.

Punnett Square: Cross Between White-Flowered and Purple-Flowered Pea Plants. This Punnett square shows a cross between a white-flowered pea plant and a purple-flowered pea plant. Can you fill in the missing alleles? What do you need to know about the offspring to complete their genotypes?

Can you tell what the genotype of the purple-flowered parent is from the information in the Punnett square? No you also need to know the genotypes of the offspring in row 2. What if you found out that two of the four offspring have white flowers? Now you know that the offspring in the second row must have the bb genotype. One of their b alleles obviously comes from the white-flowered (bb) parent, because that&rsquos the only allele this parent has. The other b allele must come from the purple-flowered parent. Therefore, the parent with purple flowers must have the genotype Bb.

Punnett Square for Two Characteristics

When you consider more than one characteristic at a time, using a Punnett square is more complicated. This is because many more combinations of alleles are possible. For example, with two genes each having two alleles, an individual has four alleles, and these four alleles can occur in 16 different combinations. This is illustrated for pea plants in Figure below. In this cross, known as a dihybrid cross, both parents are heterozygous for pod color (Gg) and pod form (Ff).

Punnett Square for Two Characteristics. This Punnett square represents a cross between two pea plants that are heterozygous for two characteristics. G represents the dominant allele for green pod color, and g represents the recessive allele for yellow pod color. F represents the dominant allele for full pod form, and f represents the recessive allele for constricted pod form.


Yellow Flowers: Rarest In The World

Yellow Lady Slippers

Yellow lady slippers are rare orchid flowers found mainly in London. The combination of yellow and purple lady slippers is extremely rare.

Around 3/4th of the flower is yellow and the remaining part is in the color purple. These yellow flowers have a bottom petal that forms a hollowed-out area that resembles a shoe, thus its name. They are so rare that botanists thought them extinct until 1917 when one plant was discovered in England growing on a golf course. The yellow and purple lady slipper is now protected by the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981. Smugglers have attempted to dig it up and have even cut away part of its flowers. Today, only six blooms remain.
The rare yellow and purple lady slippers are also one of the most expensive yellow flowers in the world and rightfully protected by law in London.

Dancing Lady Orchids

The Dancing Lady Orchids are named after their distinctively shaped yellow flowers. If you notice, the small upper part and the large bottom of the flower looks like a dancing lady. The oncidium plants grow in tropical and subtropical regions of South America, Central America, and Mexico. There are dozens of these flowers growing in each branch of the plant. The flowers come in a variety of colors including pink, white, yellow and red.

Rothschild’s Slipper Orchid

Rothschild’s Slipper orchid is one of the rarest yellow flowers in the world and characterized by its red stripes and long side petals. These yellow flowers can ONLY be found in the rainforests of Mount Kinabalu in northern Borneo, a large Asian island. Its growth range is even more limited by elevation, growing only between 1,640 and 3,930 feet above sea level. Not only are these yellows flowers rare, but one can take up to 15 years to blossom. As it is so difficult to find, this orchid species has a very high value on the black market, sold for as much as $5,000 per stem. This high cost makes them a target for smugglers which further threatens its already vulnerable existence.

Franklin Tree Flower

The Franklin tree flower belongs to the tea family but is the only one of its kind. The plant produces a 5-petalled, white flower with a bright yellow center. It is native to the Altamaha River valley in Georgia, a southeastern US state. The plant was first discovered in 1765. It was named after Benjamin Franklin and published in a 1785 catalog of North American trees and shrubs. The Franklin tree flower is now an extremely popular garden plant but unfortunately has been extinct in the wild since the early 1800s. Its extinction may have been caused by a fungal disease introduced by the cotton crops, though that is only a theory. Today, the existing plants descended from the seeds collected in the 1700s.

Parrot’s Beak

Represented as exceedingly rare since 1884, the Parrot’s Beak flower is believed to be extinct in the wild, though some individuals believe it may still be alive. Native to the Canary Islands, these yellow flowers are believed to have been originally pollinated by sunbirds which unfortunately have long gone extinct. Failed experiments have been done to see if the flowers could have found new pollinators but, as of 2008, none of these tests have been successful. For all the efforts made to take this one back home, the Parrot’s Beak flower is surely one of the rarest yellow flowers in the world.

Swaddle Babies

The exotic swaddle babies orchid flowers are native to Colombian Andes of South America. These flowers have an opening in their upper parts and on the inside look like they are a swaddled baby. The flowers also have a hinged lip. These yellow flowers bloom in summer. The large waxy flowers grow 10 cm across and they are very fragrant.
Like the unusual shape the pollination mechanism of anguloa uniflora plant is also interesting. When a pollinating insect enters the flower to drink the nectar, its shoved against the column of the flower where pollen is located. This is the trick used by anguloa uniflora orchid for pollination.

Birds of Paradise

Birds of Paradise definitely sounds like a confusing name because the name if given to both the bird and to these yellow flowers.

Interestingly, the bird of paradise is an exotic plant native to South Africa. On blooming, it’s pretty flowers look exactly like the bird of paradise in flight. That’s why it is named so. Bird of paradise is also called as crave flowers. This unusually beautiful flower symbolizes the paradise itself.

A mature bird of paradise plant blooms from May through September. Upon blooming, each of these flowers has three, upright, orange-colored sepals and three, horizontal, blue, inner sepals. Sepals are a leaf-shaped structure found in flowering plants, or angiosperms.

The plant also has long, green leaves. Altogether, this flower resembles a flying, bird of paradise, one of the most colorful birds in the world.

Bird of paradise grows well in the outdoors. It needs full sunshine. Once the flowers fade away, you should cut back the stems to encourage next level of blooming.

Dutch Hyacinth

Also known as Hyacinthus orientalis, this ball-shaped cluster of flowers is seen as a gentle and romantic spring flower. The bright color and unique shape of the Dutch hyacinth are sure to turn heads if planted in your garden.

Craspedia

Also known as Craspedia globosa or Billy Buttons, these round flowers can grow to the size of a tennis ball, making them a unique addition to any traditional arrangement. Give craspedia as a get-well-soon gift as the flower represents good health!

Black-eyed Susan

These sturdy, daisy-like yellow flowers add a bold touch of bright yellow to any bouquet. Rudbeckia hirta, also known by its nickname Black-Eyed Susan, this is a North American flowering plant in the sunflower family, native to Eastern and Central North America and naturalized in the Western part of the continent as well as in China.

Dianthus Caryophyllus

More commonly called a carnation, this bloom is very different than the one in bouquets and given commonly as gifts. It has only 4 small thin petals and will only grow a few inches in height (so cute). Plant it in full sun or partial shade. It needs moist and well-drained soil.

Yellow Hyacinth

Hyacinths are on our list of unique yellow flowers because these ones come with a unique scent. Their flower meanings are specific to their colors. Yellow hyacinths represent jealousy. Ooh!

Sunsprite Roses

The sunsprite is probably one among the most beautiful yellow roses in the world. The striking depth of the yellow color of this rose lasts throughout its lifetime. The strong, sweet fragrance is another great attraction of the Sunsprite rose. It can be a perfect addition to your cutting garden.

The Sunsprite Rose will grow up to a height of 2.4 feet. It can be planted on the ground or in a flowerpot. The bright, yellow blooms normally have 25-30 petals. Luckily, they are saturated with intense, sweet fragrance.

The use of yellow roses has been traced back to the Victorian era, when the flowers were arranged in a particular way to convey secret messages. These arrangements are called Tussie-Mussies and it is a tradition that still lives today.

Honey Perfume

The Honey Perfume is an intense cluster-flowered rose. This rose bears large clusters of gorgeous apricot yellow flowers. Besides its beautiful appearance, honey perfume also has a strong, spicy fragrance. It blooms only between spring to fall. Each blossom has 25 to 30 petals. The honey perfume plant has dark green foliage making each flower of this plant look more attractive and shining.

Western Skunk Cabbage

The Western skunk cabbage is named after the skunky smell produced by its flowers. This plant grows in swamps and woodlands of Alaska, California, Idaho, Washington, Montana and Oregon. The Western skunk cabbage bloom in early spring and winter. The rod shaped flowers have bright yellow color. They grow to a height of 40 cm. The skunky smell of this plant attracts scavenging flies as pollinators.

Stapelia Gigantea

Stapelia gigantea are beautiful carrion yellow flowers that smells like rotten flesh. The starry pale yellow colored flowers resemble starfish. It is also called as African starfish, grows in tropical regions of Southeastern Africa. The distinctive shape in addition to rotting flesh like smell attracts pollinating insects. The plant blooms in mind-summer. The unpleasant smell of stapelia giganteas is very intense and can be recognized from long distances.

Evening Primrose

The evening primrose plant is cultivated for its oil and edible roots. The evening primrose oil contains numerous essential fatty acids that is great for good health. The plant is native to the Americas with 145 different types of primroses in total and aptly named so because these yellow flowers only bloom or open at night.

The evening primrose plant grows 3 to 5 feet in height. Its stem is stout and soft-hairy. The plant blooms between July and August. The bright yellow colored flowers bloom only at night and closed up early in the morning. The flowers are also strongly scented during the night.

Tropical Night Blooming Water Lilies

Night blooming tropical water lilies are common in the world but they are unique as these flowers bloom or open their petals at dusk and close up in the mind-morning. The night blooming tropical water lilies comes in wide varieties of colors including purple, blue, red, pink, orange and of course, yellow.

The tropical water lilies are also very large. They can have a diameter of 2-12 feet. The tropical water lilies only grow best in ponds where the temperatures are above 65 degree Fahrenheit.

What does the yellow flower mean? Do yellow flowers mean death?

The meaning of flowers is a thing of beauty and has been used throughout history as part of different rich cultures and traditions. The ancient Mayan civilization, for instance, regarded yellow flowers in general as a symbol of abundance.

In Eastern parts of the world, such as Japan, the color yellow is deemed sacred and worthy of royalty. This belief even extends to yellow flowers as well.

But there is a notion that the French see yellow as a color of jealousy. While this could come in handy if you want to subtly send your girlfriend this type of message, you may want to think twice first about handing over a bouquet of yellow flowers to someone from France.

Lastly the meanings of yellow flowers in Mexico, especially marigolds, are only used to honor the dead.

What are the names of yellow flowers?

Sunflowers, Sunsprite Roses, Begonia, Water Lily, Pansy, Ranunculus, Dahlia, Black-Eyed Susan, Orchids, Dancing Yellow Orchid, Tulips, Craspedia.

What tree has yellow flowers?

The Golden Chain Tree has yellow flowers. The flower’s strands are made up of many small pea flowers and they look like wisteria blooms.


Features used to Distinguish Monocots from Dicots

Dicots differ from monocots in six distinct structural features. Five of these features are easily observed in the mature angiosperm: the flowers, leaves, roots, stems, and pollen grains. However, the root of these differences stems from the very early embryonic stages of the angiosperm, providing the biggest difference of all between monocots and dicots: the seed.

Flowers

Flowers usually arrange their parts in circles, with the reproductive parts in the middle surrounded by petals and sepals. In dicots, these flower parts are pentamerous. In other words, the flower parts of a dicot are arranged, structured, or numbered in multiples of five, or sometimes four. This is not reliable, however, and is not the easiest characteristic to look for in flowers that have either reduced or numerous parts.

Leaf Venation

Roots

In plants, the radicle, or the embryonic root, is the first part to emerge from the seed. It shoots down into the ground and begins taking up nutrients and water from the soil. The radicle of a dicot plant develops into the root of the plant. More specifically, the root of a dicot is known as a tap root. Tap root systems have a long and deep primary root, with smaller secondary root growths laterally branching off of the primary root.

Stems

Dicots exhibit secondary growth, which is the ability to increase their diameter via the production of wood and bark. This is the result of two lateral meristems: the cork cambium and the vascular cambium. These lateral meristems continue to produce new cells throughout the life of the woody dicot plant, ultimately increasing the girth of the plant. The rigidity of wood and bark provide mechanical support against gravity and desiccation to dicots, allowing them to grow large, tall, and solid.

In a cross-section of a dicot stem, you will find an epidermis, hypodermis, endodermis, ground tissues, and vascular bundles. Typically, dicot stems have the following characteristics: multicellular epidermal hairs all over the epidermis chollenchymatous hypodermis pith differentiated ground tissues and a limited number of vascular bundles in a concentric arrangement. The vascular bundles are typically limited to numbers of four or eight, and arranged near the perimeter of the stem in one or two rings.

Pollen Grains

Pollen grains are like the male sex cells of plant they are the male gametophytes that produce the plant’s sperm cells (male gametes). The pollen grains of dicot plants have physical characteristics that distinguish them from the pollen grains of dicot plants. If you look closely, dicot pollen grains are tricolpate, meaning that they have three ridges that go through the outer layer. This structure is derived from the first angiosperms, which had monosulcate pollen grains (having one ridge). The monosulcate form, however, was not retained over the course of divergent evolution.

Embryos

The plant embryo is the part of the seed that contains all of the precursor tissues of the plant and one or more cotyledon. As the name suggests, dicots are characterized by having two (di-) cotyledons in the seed, and two embryonic leaves emerging from the cotyledons.

The seed pods of a dicot are variable in size, shape, texture, and structure. Dicot seed pods can have almost any number of chambers, including zero. More often than not, dicot seed pods contain more seeds than a monocot seed pod.

The cotyledon is the first part of the plant to emerge from the seed, and is the actual basis for distinguishing the two main groups of angiosperms. Cotyledons are important in food absorption and are responsible for absorbing nutrients from the environment until the plant can photosynthesize its own nutrients.


Okra: Origin, Inheritance and Varieties | India

After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Origin of Okra 2. Taxonomy of Okra 3. Botany 4. Distribution 5. Breeding Objectives 6. Inheritance 7. Sources of Resistance 8. Selfing and Crossing 9. Disease Resistance Breeding 10. Seed Production 11. Breeding Methods 12. Varieties.

Origin of Okra:

According to Zeven and Zhukovsky (1975), okra is believed to have originated in the Hindustani Centre of Origin, chiefly India, Pakistan and Burma. However, according to some other authors, A. esculentus originated in India, Ethiopia, West Africa and Tropical Asia.

Taxonomy of Okra:

The genus Abelmoschus is small and consists of at least six species. These are native to the Hindustani Centre or to south-east Asia, and are closely related to each other. Other authors have recognized still other specific entities or fertile amphidiploids.

A list of species, their distinctive characteristics, and chromosome numbers when known, is given in Table 14.1:

* Species according to J.van Borssum Waalkes

West African okras are characterized by many morphological and physiological differences from the normal okra. West African okras have less epicalyx segments, very red leaf veins, late flowering when planted in the summer, pods mounted at right angles to the stem, and large numbers of seeds per pod. In addition, pods of the East African type tend to be short, with a relatively long sterile tip (Fig. 14.1).

Hybridization of West African with Typical Okra:

The cross between common okra and West African okra are made with ease in either direction. Normally, every pollinated flower produces a pod and seed set is normal. The seeds are in no way abnormal and germinate in about the same time as the seeds of the female parent.

The F1 hybrids are more similar in appearance to the West African parent than to common okra (Table 14.2). They are robust, tend to have much anthocyanin, usually have shortened internodes and bloom more easily during the long days of summer. They are easily distinguished from the African parents by more rapid growth, upright pods, and narrower, more numerous sub-calyx segments. They flower more readily during long days.

The F1 hybrids are somewhat sterile (Table 14.3). Pollen range in size of grains from those that are very small, transparent, and obviously inviable, through intermediate sizes, to pollen grains that are much larger than those of either parent (0.24 mm).

This poor fertility of the pollen is reflected in production of many pods with few seeds, either by artificial or natural cross pollination. The seeds that are produced are often shrunken, small, or empty. Very few F2 seeds germinate in the majority of the hybrids. On the other hand, back crosses using pollen from either parent are less sterile than self-pollinations and fertile seeds are easily produced.

Botany of Okra:

Okra is an upright annual herbaceous plant, 3-6 feet tall and has hibiscus-like flowers. It has deep taproot system. Stem is semi-woody, usually green and occasionally, pigmented with green or reddish tinge colour. It is erect, having 3-5 branches. The leaves are alternate, 3-7 lobed palmate, hirsute and serrate. Leaves are subtended by a pair of narrow stipules. Okra leaf colour is dark green and leaf resembles a maple leaf.

Flowers are solitary, axillary having epicalyx (up to 10). Flower peduncle is 2-2.5 cm long. Flowers are large, around 2 inches in diameter, with 5 white to yellow petals with red or purple spot at the base of each petal. Flowers last only for a day. Each blossom develops a small green pod. The flowers are hermaphrodite and actinomorphic. There are 5 valvate, distinct or basally connate sepals.

Androecium consists of numerous monoadelphous stamens with apically divergent filaments. Gynoecium is a single compound pistil of 2 to many carpels with equal number of styles or style branches. Ovary is superior with 2 to many locules each having several ovules. Calyx is completely fused to make a protective case for flower bud and splits into lobes when the bud opens.

Calyx, corolla and stamens are fused together at the base and fall off as one piece after anthesis. The erect sexual parts consist of 5 to 9 part-style, each part with a capitate stigma, surrounded by the staminal tube bearing numerous filaments. Fruit is elongated, conical capsule, comprising 5 cavities containing ovules. Okra fruit contains 20-50, oval, smooth, dark green to dark brown seeds.

Distribution of Okra:

Okra, lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, 2n = 2x = 130) is a fast growing annual herb the young seed pods of which are used as a common vegetable. It is an important fruit vegetable crop of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is commonly grown through the warmer parts of temperate Asia, southern Europe, northern Africa, the United States, and in all parts of the tropics.

It is adapted to climates with relatively short rainy seasons, hence its special acceptance in north-east Brazil where it is considered a crop that never fails. In India, okra is commercially grown in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Haryana, and Punjab covering an area of about 4.5 lakh ha in 2009-10 with a productivity of 10.5 tons/ha.

India ranks first in world in okra production. The other countries growing okra commercially are Turkey, Iran, Western Africa, Yugoslavia, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Myanmar, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, Ghana, Ethiopia, Cyprus and Southern USA.

Breeding Objectives of Okra:

2. Dark green, tender, thin, medium long, smooth, 4-5 ridged pods at marketable stage

3. Pods free from conspicuous hair, seed bulging and yellow ring at base

4. Early and prolonged harvest

5. Short plant with more number of nodes, short internodes

6. Optimum seed setting ability

7. Pods suitable for processing industry and export market

8. Resistance to diseases (yellow vein mosaic virus, fusarium wilt, cercospora leaf spot)

9. Resistance/tolerance to insects (fruit and shoot borer, jassids and whitefly)

10. Tolerance to abiotic stresses (low temperature, excessive rains, saline and alkaline soils)

Inheritance of Okra:

Martin (1981) carried out a study of variation of 29 characteristics (Table 14.5) of 585 varieties or seedlings of okra. The 17 West African varieties could be distinguished from all others on the basis of 5 discriminating characteristics (Table 14.6). In addition, seedlings of the 3rd outcrossing generation of a population differed from a varietal collection in several characteristics, the most important of which were more seeds/pod and more pods/plant.

This is believed to be the result of mass-selection. Country groups differed significantly in characteristics, but these differences are probably due to small sample size. No such distinguishing characteristics were seen among country groups represented by large number of varieties. However, one country group was an exception.

A group of 17 varieties from Africa was strongly distinguishable from all other country groups on the basis of the following characters:

(iii) Reduced number of sub-calyx bracts

(iv) Pods mounted at right angles to the stem

(v) Large number of seeds/pod

Inheritance of principal characteristics of okra as summarised by Martin et al. (1981) is given in Table 14.5:

Genetics of resistance to yellow vein mosaic, a serious disease of okra has been investigated by the Indian scientists, viz. Harbhajan Singh, N.D. Jambhale, Y.S. Nerkar, M.R. Thakur and B.R. Sharma, etc. Singh et al. (1962) reported the involvement of two recessive genes (yv1/yv1, yv2/yv2) in a field resistant line IC 1542.

However, Thakur (1976) while studying the mode of inheritance to yellow vein mosaic of okra in interspecific crosses, A. esculentus x A. manihot ssp. manihot under natural epiphytotic conditions, reported resistance to be conditioned by two complementary dominant genes despite occurrence of hybrid sterility. Symptomless carrier plants were also detected.

On the other hand Jambhale and Nerkar (1981) crossed two Abelmoschus species, viz., A. manihot (L.) Medik and A. manihot (L.) Medik sp manihot, resistant to YVM, to A. esculentus cv Pusa Sawani, a susceptible variety. The hybrids were resistant and partially fertile. Segregation pattern for disease reaction in F2, BC1 and subsequent generations of two crosses revealed that resistance to YVM is controlled by a single dominant gene in each species.

Sources of Resistance of Okra:

Based on Sharma and Arora (1993), the information is summarized as follows:

Selfing and Crossing of Okra:

(i) Cover unopened flower bud with half-length wheat pollination paper-bag and staple or clip the bag securely along peduncle. Put a thread-ring at the peduncle. The pod will come out piercing through the bag. The thread-ring acts as identification mark for selfed pods during harvesting.

(ii) Tie circular thread around pedicel/peduncle and put a knot around the unopened flower petals with the same piece of thread. The petals shall bulge out below the tied thread during flower opening and the stigma inside remains protected from unwanted pollen grains. The thread tied at pedicel is the identification mark for selfed-pod at harvesting.

The flowering in okra starts from below to upwards. Dehiscence usually occurs around 8-10 am, about 20 minutes after anthesis flowers remain open for the three-fourth of the day and wither in the afternoon. Stigma is receptive during anthesis, hence pollination is not very successful at bud stage.

Emasculation is done in the late afternoon. A plump, big size, unopened bud is selected. Two long and opposite slits are made on the calyx with forceps. Both the halves of the sepal are pulled downwards and removed. Now, entire corolla and anthers are removed and the emasculated bud is covered with paper-bag which is secured with U clip on the pedicel.

Flowers just to open fully are collected. Calyx and corolla are removed and the dehiscing anthers are brushed over stigma of the buds emasculated on preceding afternoon. One male flower can be used to pollinate 3-4 female flowers. After pollination, the buds are again covered with pollination paper bag and a label having name of male parent along with date of pollination is tied at the pedicel of the pollinated flower bud.

Disease Resistance Breeding of Okra:

Yellow Vein Mosaic (Gemini-virus):

1. Most devastating disease of okra.

2. First reported by C.S. Kulkarni in 1924 followed by B.N. Uppal, P.M. Verma and S.P. Capoor in 1940 and S.P. Capoor and P.M. Verma in 1950.

3. Characteristic symptoms include-homogeneous interwoven network of yellow veins enclosing islands of green tissues.

4. Initially, the infected leaves exhibit only yellow coloured veins but in later stages, entire leaf turns completely yellow.

5. Plants infected in early stages remain stunted and fruits from infected plants show pale yellow colour.

6. Fruits are often small, deformed and tough.

7. Transmission is by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

8. 10 whiteflies/plant are required to induce infection.

9. Acquisition period is 1 hr and viruliferous whiteflies can transmit the virus to healthy plants after 30 minutes of feeding.

10. Preliminary fasting up to 4 hrs. improves efficiency of whiteflies as vector.

11. Infected plants within 20 days of germination remain stunted and hardly produce any fruit.

12. Whitefly population and YVMV incidence are maximum during March-June under Bangalore and Pune conditions. In north India, severity is high in rainy season planting, particularly in June sowing. In Pune, May sown okra shows good disease expression in July.

13. The virus belongs to begomavirus of family Geminiviridae.

14. Arka Anamika, Arka Abhay and Parbhani Kranti were initially highly tolerant.

15. Abelmoschus manihot accessions have shown resistance to YVMV.

16. Crosses of cultivated okra with Abelmoschus manihot under BC2/BC3 followed by pedigree method of breeding are expected to give YVMV resistant segregants.

Enation Leaf Curl of Okra:

1. First observed at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessarghatta, Bangalore in 1924 by S.J. Singh and 1986 by S.J. Singh and O.P. Dutta.

2. Initial symptoms include small, pin-headed enations on leaves, followed by warty and rough texture of leaves. Later on, leaves begin to curl in an adexial direction. Bold enations are prominent on the under surface of leaves.

3. There is twisting of main stem, lateral branches and leaf petiole. The leaves become thick and leathery. In severe cases, bending of stem is obvious.

4. Virus transmission is by grafting. Natural transmission is by whitefly.

5. No resistant source is reported.

Cerscospora Leaf Spot (Cercospora abelmoschi, C. malayensis, C. hibisci):

1. The disease occurs in humid season.

2. Brown irregular spot/sooty black angular spots.

3. Affected leaves roll, wilt and fall.

4. There could be severe defoliation.

Seed Production of Okra:

Breeder/Foundation seed – 400 m

Cultivar Description:

This is in accordance with George (1999).

1. Usage: fresh product, early production, processing, drying, export market, suitability for specific day length

2. Seed: colour of mature seed

3. Time of start of anthesis

4. Plant habit: degree of branching and side shoot development

Degree of anthocyanin pigmentation

Character of leaf from first leaf to fifth leaf, including lobing

Character of leaf from sixth leaf onwards, including lobing

Anthocyanin present or absent at base of petals

If present, on inner and/or outer surface

Shape in transverse section and number of facets

Degree of spininess (pubescence)

9. Resistance to specific pathogens e.g. mosaic virus

Check the general plant height and habit morphology of leaves pigmentation of leaves, petioles and stems remove plants with virus symptoms.

Check the relative size, pigmentation and colour intensity of flowers remove plants with virus symptoms.

Check that fruits are true to type remove plants with virus symptoms.

Harvesting and Seed Extraction:

There is a sequential ripening of okra pods on the plant. The pods of the angular-fruited types have a tendency to split when the seed ripens. The traditional hand harvesting of ripe pods is still done in many tropical areas where there is adequate labour, although the crop is combined when produced on a large scale in the USA.

Seeds are extracted after the hand-harvested pods become dry and brittle. The most efficient method of seed extraction by hand is to twist the pods open. Alternatively, the pods are either flailed or the seeds extracted with a stationary thresher.

Hybrid Seed Production on Commercial Scale in India:

Hybrid seed of okra on commercial scale is mostly produced in Ranebennur area of Karnataka and Buldha district of Maharashtra. The system is totally manual, where large scale emasculations followed by pollinations are practiced by trained family members of the contract growers. The production season is rainy season.

The size of production plots is 1000 m 2 /unit plot. Each production plot needs 200 g seed of female parent and 50 g seed of male parent. These seeds give rise to about 2000-2500 female plants and 500 male plants. One g of seed = 10 seeds = 10 plants on an average basis. For emasculation, calyx, corolla and all the anthers are removed from un-opened, but mature full-sized buds in the afternoon by the trained labourers.

During this process, all open flowers and already set pods are also removed. Next morning, fully developed flower buds, not open are collected from the male parent and are left as such in the sun for some time. Calyx and corolla of those flowers are removed and the dehiscing, staminal column is used to brush against stigma of already emasculated flowers of the female parent. One male flower can be used to pollinate 3-4 female flowers.

In some cases, mature but unopened flower buds of male parent are collected in the evening, calyx is removed and the buds are taken home and kept under bulb. In this process, they open in the night and anthers start dehiscing. These are used for pollination next morning. Under normal circumstances about 50 kg hybrid seed/unit plot of 1000 m 2 is produced.

Breeding Methods Applicable to Okra:

This is applicable to landraces/cultivars collected from Farmers’ field, for example, Pusa Makhmali was bred from a material collected from West Bengal. Similarly, Co 1 is a single plant selection from Red Wonder.

2. Pedigree Method:

This method is applicable to the segregating generations after hybridization between desirable promising donors. The individual plant selection starts in the F2 generation and continues till F5 or F6. For example, Pusa Sawani was developed through this method in an inter-varietal cross. Punjab Padmini, Parbhani Kranti, P7, Arka Anamika and Arka Abhaya are examples following interspecific hybridization.

There are not significant achievements in okra through this breeding method so far. Phadvibulya et.al. (2009) have reported some success in developing YVMV resistant selections in Thailand based on induced mutations.

These scientists irradiated seeds of two okra varieties, Annie and Okura with gamma rays at doses of 400 and 800 Gy. Screening of YVMD resistant plants was conducted for M3 and M4 plants under field conditions and greenhouse conditions using whitefly transmission.

One M4 plant of Okura irradiated at 400 Gy was reported to be highly resistant, but none of Annie. M5 plants of M4 plant showing resistance to YVMD were screened further for YVMD under both greenhouse and field conditions. Ten resistant lines obtained by screening for YVMD resistance up to the M7 generation were selected for yield trial.

Three of the mutant lines were further evaluated at location where YVMD was seriously widespread. However, only a small portion of plants of mutant lines appeared to be resistant throughout the whole growth duration, others eventually, exhibited the yellow vein symptoms.

Thus, the net result could not lead to commercialisation of the mutant. Therefore, mutation breeding for YVMD resistance in okra should be initiated with heavy odds against it and the breeder should be realistic in approach.

4. Heterosis Breeding:

Heterosis in okra has been reported for various economic traits, viz. early and late flowering, plant height, number, weight and size of pods, number of ridges, marketable and total yield.

Using hand emasculation and pollination, commercial hybrids are developed. There are promising hybrids under private sector seed companies in India. The current seed market of okra in India is approximately 4000 tons for open-pollinated cultivars and 1000 tons for hybrids.

The prominent hybrids in Indian market presently are as follows:

Krishdhan Seeds: Hyb 215 and 577

These hybrids have high yield potential and high level of tolerance to yellow vein mosaic virus.

Varieties of Okra:

Important varieties of okra are described as follows.

It was developed by H.B. Singh and S.M. Sikka in 1955 at the then Plant Introduction Division, IARI, New Delhi, as a result of selection from the local material collected from West Bengal. It is an early variety. Pods are smooth, straight, 5-edged, attractive, light green, slender, 15-20 cm long. The yield potential is 100 q/ha.

It was bred by H.B. Singh in 1957-58 at the then Plant Introduction Section, Division of Botany, IARI, New Delhi. It is derived from a cross of IC-1542 (field resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus) and Pusa Makhmali. Plants are 120-180 cm tall in rainy season. The pods are smooth (slightly hairy on the edges), 5-edged, dark green and 18-20 cm long.

It is distinguished by the presence of a purple patch at the base of the yellow petal on both the sides (a character of the parent IC 1542), whereas in most okra varieties the patch is present only on the inner side. Initially, it was reported to be free from the YVM. But at present it has been found to be susceptible.

The variety is still popular for growing in the plains of northern India in virus free period (spring summer). It has been notified by the central seed committee in 1969 for general cultivation throughout the country. Yield potential is 100 q/ha.

It was developed by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in 1976. It is a single plant selection from a population of Red Wonder collected from Hyderabad. The plants are medium tall (90-120 cm) with 5-8 branches. Stem, shoots, petioles, midrib and basal veins of the lower surface of the lamina are prominently scarlet red. Leaves are deeply lobed (5-7 lobes).

The first fruit is borne on the 5th node and each plant yields on an average 20 fruits weighing around 300 g. The pods are long, slender, 5-ridged, glossy, smooth and scarlet red, but colour disappears on cooking. It has field tolerance to YVM but susceptible to fruit borer and powdery mildew. It is suitable for rainy, winter and summer seasons in Tamil Nadu. It was notified by the central seed committee in 1978.

It was evolved by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in 1978. It is an induced mutant, isolated from ‘Pusa Sawani’. On an average, there are 13 nodes/plants. Stem is green with light purple pigmentation. Fruiting begins from 4-5th node. It takes 33 days to first flowering and 43 days to first picking. Fruits are light green, about 20 cm long. It has been notified by the central seed committee in 1985.

It was evolved by B.R. Sharma in 1982 at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana from a cross between Abelmoschus esculentus and A. manihot ssp. manihot.F1 plant of a cross A. esculentus cv. ‘Reshmi’ X A. manihot ssp. manihot cv. Ghana was hybridized with an F2 (OP) plant of a cross A. esculentus cv. Pusa Sawani X A. manihot ssp. manihot cv. Ghana.

Continuous selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus and desirable horticultural traits in the subsequent generations led to the isolation of Ludhiana Sel-1 in the F8 generation which was later named as ‘Punjab Padmini’. Plants are tall (180-200 cm). Stem, shoots, petiole and basal veins of the lower surface of the lamina are mildly scarlet red. Leaves are large, dark green, hairy, with 3-5 moderate lobes.

It flowers in 45-50 days and first picking starts about 55 days after sowing. Fruiting starts from 6-8th node onwards. Pods are fast growing, dark green, shining, smooth, thin, 15-20 cm long, 5-ridged and remain tender for 3-4 days.

It has field resistance to YVMV and tolerance to jassids and cotton boll worm. It is suitable for cultivation during both spring/summer and rainy seasons under north Indian conditions. Yield potential is 100-125 q/ha of green pods and 12.5 q/ha of seed. It was notified by the central seed committee in 1983 for general cultivation.

Gujarat Bhindi-1:

It was developed at the Gujarat Agricultural University in 1983. It is a pure line selection from an unknown bulk seed sample received from IARI, New Delhi. Plants are about 60 cm tall .in summer season and 90 cm in rainy season. There is purple tinge on stem. Leaves are broad, dark green with purple tinge on veins. Fruiting starts from 4-5th node. Fruits are 5-ridged, 14-15 cm long and 6-7 cm in girth. Green pod yield is about 70 q/ha. It has been notified by the central seed committee.

The original ‘Perkins Long Green’ or Sel-6 has been named as Harbhajan in the memory of the most dedicated Vegetable Scientist, Dr. Harbhajan Singh of IARI, New Delhi by T.A. Thomas and R. Prasad. Plants are very tall, thick and prolific bearer. Leaves are large, moderately lobed with rough surface and prominent veins. Fruits are long, tapered, bright green, spineless and mostly 8-edged. It is notified by the central variety release committee.

It was evolved by H.B. Singh and his colleagues in 1973-74 at IARI, New Delhi. It is a derivative of the cross (Pusa Sawani Best-1) x (Pusa Sawani x IC 7194). Plants are 110 cm tall with occasional branching tendency. Flowers have purple petal base colour.

Fruits are green, long, 5-edged, tender and are available for market after 50 days of sowing. The duration of the harvest is 40-50 days. It is tolerant to YVMV. The green pod yield potential is about 100 q/ha. It was identified by the all India coordinated research project on vegetables in 1985.

Parbhani Kranti:

It is a YVM resistant variety evolved by N.D. Jambhale and Y.S. Nerkar of Maratha Wada Agricultural University, Parbhani in 1985 from an interspecific cross between A. esculentus cv. ‘Pusa Sawani’ and A. manihot, an African species carrying resistance to YVMV. BC2 with Pusa Sawani was subjected to selfing and selection up to F8.

Plants are tall, single stemmed with dark green foliage. Leaves are deeply lobed with narrow leaflets in the top 1/3rd portion. Fruit stalk is funnel shaped. First fruit is borne on the 5-6th node. Marketable fruit size (8-9 cm) is attained 7-8 days after anthesis. The fruits are extremely dark-green, smooth, tender, slender, 5-ridged with long and narrow tip.

On an average, green fruit yield is 85-90 q/ha during summer and 115 q/ha during rainy season. Seed yield of 10 q/ha from the rainy season crop and 5-6 q/ha from the summer crop is possible. It has been notified by the central seed committee in 1986 for cultivation throughout the country. Now it is susceptible to YVMV.

It is a YVM virus-resistant variety developed by M.R. Thakur and S.K. Arora in 1985 at PAU, Ludhiana from a cross between A. esculentus cv. ‘Pusa Sawani’ and A. manihot ssp. manihot, a species from Ghana carrying resistance to YVM. The F1 was back-crossed to ‘Pusa Sawani’ four times and selection was practiced in the selfing generations up to F8.

Plants are medium tall with short internodes and grow upto 105 cm in the rainy season and 85 cm in the spring season. Stem carries splashes of pigmentation. Leaves are deeply lobed up to the base of the petiole and leaf margins are less serrated. The basal portion of the petiole is deeply pigmented. Stem, leaves and petiole are sparsely hairy. Fruits are medium long, green, tender and 5-ridged.

The top of the fruit is blunt and slightly furrowed. It flowers in about 45-50 days and is ready to first picking after 54 days of sowing. The first fruit is borne on the 5-6th node. Yield potential is about 95 q/ha during rainy season and 50 q/ha during spring season. On an average, it yields 4- 8 q seed/ha.

Sel 10 (Arka Anamika):

It is YVM virus resistant variety evolved by O.P. Dutta and his group in 1984 at IIHR, Bangalore. It is of interspecific origin between A. esculentus and a wild species A. manihot ssp. tetraphyllus. Plants are medium tall (about 100 cm) with short inter-nodal length and less branched.

Splashes of purple pigmentation are present on the stem, petiole and lower surface of the basal leaves. Leaves are green, small and deeply lobed. Stem, petiole and leaves are sparsely hairy. Fruits are medium green, rough, 5-ridged and start after 5-6th node onwards. Yield potential is 115 q/ha of green pods. It has been identified for general cultivation by the all India coordinated vegetable improvement project in 1990.

It has been developed by B.R. Sharma and S.K. Arora in 1989 at PAU, Ludhiana. It is an induced mutant derived from Pusa Sawani treated with 1% EMS. The final selection was made in the M8 generation.

Plants are tall. Stem, petioles, and basal portion of the lower surface of the leaves have splashes of purple pigmentation. Fruits are medium long, thin, tender, green and 5- edged. It has field resistance to YVMV and tolerance to fruit borer. On an average, it gives 95 q/ha marketable yield of green pods.

This variety has been released by IARI in 1994 as a substitute for Pusa Sawani. The plants are dark-green with sparse pigmentation (occasional) on stem and petiole, with usually single stem having short internodes (2-4 cm). The leaves are broad and medium lobed.

The fruits are 5-ridged, attractive dark-green, 12-15 cm long having excellent shelf-life. It is resistant to YVMV and tolerant to jassids and shoot and fruit borer. Green fruit yield during summer season ranges 10-12 tonnes/ ha while during kharif and late kharif it could give still higher yields. It also responds to pruning to extend the summer crop for added harvests during kharif season.

The variety has been released by IIHR, Bangalore as resistant to YVMV. It is a sister line of Arka Anamika. The plants resemble Arka Anamika in appearance as well as YVMV resistance. It carries tolerance to fruit borer and may suit pruning for a ratoon crop.

Developed by IIVR, Varanasi, 110-140 cm tall plant, flowers at 4-5th node during summer and 5-7th node during rainy season, fruits five ridged, 11 -12 cm long pods, 130-150 q/ha pod yield, tolerant to YVMV under field conditions.

Developed by IIVR, Varanasi, 130-175 cm tall plants with average of 2 effective branches/ plant, flowering at 4th node after 36-38 days after sowing in rainy season, 8-10 cm long pods, 23-25 pods/plant, 150-180 q/ha yield, highly tolerant to YVMO.

This variety has been developed by Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar from the cross, Lam Selection 1 x Parbhani Kranti following pedigree selection method. It was released in 1992 and notified in 1995 by the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards. It has resistance to YVMV and field tolerance to leaf hopper and suits to disease prone rainy as well as disease-free spring- summer season.

Plants are medium tall (90-120 cm) with short internodes, producing 2-3 branches each. Petiole is pigmented. It takes 40 days to first flowering and 50 days to first picking. Fruit bearing starts from 4th node. Fruits are smooth, dark-green, attractive with long tapering tip and measure 18-20 cm on full maturity. Average number of seeds per fruit is 55-60. It is a prolific bearer with an average fruit yield of 10 tonnes/ha.

Developed by Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar from the cross, Se.1 2-2 x Parbhani Kranti, has been released by the Central Variety Release Committee and notified in 1996. It is resistant to YVMV, early (first picking in 46-47 days) and high yielding (12-13 tonnes/ha green fruits) variety.

Plants are medium tall with short internodes producing 3-4 branches each. Foliage is green, petioles occasionally pigmented. Petal base is pigmented on inner side only. Fruits are green, attractive, 5 ridged and measure 15-16 cm in length on full maturity. It is suitable for growing during summer as well as rainy season.

Prominent hybrids of private sector seed companies in India are Mahyco 10, Mahyco 64, Sonal, Avantika, Syn 16, Syn 152, KVS 215 and KVS 577. The hybrid okra market is quite dynamic.

The hybrids to survive in the market should be highly tolerant to YVMV along with other desirable features, like shiny green or dark green pods, shorter internodes, pods without seed bulging and free from yellow ring at the base. Pods should be smooth and easy to harvest. Hybrid okra market is going to be very competitive.


Asiatic Lilies

Asiatic lilies are prized for their bright colors, including shades of pink, red, orange and yellow. Some are also white or bi-colored. Asiatic lilies have strong, straight stems with multiple blooms and most cultivars are not fragrant. They grow best in full sunlight and moist, rich soil. Asiatic lilies are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9 and bloom in early summer. Lilies in this group include Lilium amabile, which has red flowers and spreads quickly, Lilium bakerianum, which can grow at altitudes of over 11,000 feet above sea level, Lilium callosum, which have 3-foot tall stems lined with as many as 12 flowers, and Lilium cernuum, which unlike most Asiatic varieties, does have a light scent.


Very few monocots are able to grow woody and therefore struggle to grow very tall compared to the heights of dicotyledonous trees and gymnosperms. There are exceptions to this rule though such as palm trees, cabbage trees, and screw pines which all have hardened stems and can grow to respectable heights. No monocots will ever compete with the amazing heights of the world’s tallest trees (such as the giant redwoods and eucalyptus trees), however, but some species of palm trees can grow over 50 m tall which is taller than the maximum heights of the majority of true trees.

The vascular tissue that carries water and nutrients is arranged differently in monocots than in other angiosperms. In dicotyledonous plants, the vascular tissue, which runs the length of the plant’s stem, is arranged in a ring usually around the outer edge of the stem whereas in monocots the vascular tissue is scattered throughout the stem. This isn’t always an easily observable characteristic but it is an important physiological difference between monocots and other angiosperms.


Mendel's First Set of Experiments

At first, Mendel experimented with just one characteristic at a time. He began with flower color. As shown in Figure (PageIndex<5>), Mendel cross-pollinated violet-flowered and white-flowered parent plants. The parent plants in the experiments are referred to as the P (for parent) generation.

F1 and F2 Generations

Figure (PageIndex<5>): In one of his experiments on inheritance patterns, Mendel crossed plants that were true-breeding for violet flower color with plants true-breeding for white flower color (the P generation). The resulting hybrids in the F1 generation all had violet flowers. In the F2 generation, approximately three-quarters of the plants had violet flowers, while one-quarter had white flowers.

The offspring of the P generation are called the F1 (for filial, or &ldquooffspring&rdquo) generation. As shown in Figure (PageIndex<5>), all of the plants in the F1 generation had violet flowers. None of them had white flowers. Mendel wondered what had happened to the white-flower characteristic. He assumed some type of inherited factor produces white flowers and some other inherited factor produces violet flowers. Did the white-flower factor just disappear in the F1 generation? If so, then the offspring of the F1 generation &mdash called the F2 generation &mdash should all have violet flowers like their parents.

To test this prediction, Mendel allowed the F1 generation plants to self-pollinate. He was surprised by the results. Some of the F2 generation plants had white flowers. He studied hundreds of F2 generation plants, and for every three violet-flowered plants, there was an average of one white-flowered plant.

Law of Segregation

Mendel did the same experiment for all seven characteristics. In each case, one value of the characteristic disappeared in the F1 plants and then showed up again in the F2 plants. And in each case, 75 percent of F2 plants had one value of the characteristic and 25 percent had the other value. Based on these observations, Mendel formulated his first law of inheritance. This law is called the law of segregation. It states that there are two factors controlling a given characteristic, one of which dominates the other, and these factors separate and go to different gametes when a parent reproduces.


Landscape Uses

The bold colors of Gerbera daisies need to be carefully integrated into flowers bed with subtle colors. They work best contrasted against simple plants with delicate white or pale blooms and airy foliage. Complementary colored Calibrachoa and Diascia make a nice contrast. To play up the bold colors, pair Gerbera daisies with plants that have yellow foliage, like the short grasses of Hakonechloa macra. Small or spiky blue flowers, such as those found on sage and lobelia, also bring out the boldness of Gerber daisies. And of course, you can always grow Gerbera daisies by themselves. They easily fill up a pot for a colorful statement.

Cut Gerbera daisies when the flowers are fully opened, but the center remains tight. The stems will take as much water as you give them, but too much water will shorten the display time. Place them in 1 inch of water and add more as necessary. If the base of the stem begins to discolor, make a fresh cut on an angle.


Watch the video: How to draw a Yellow Flower Tecoma stans (June 2022).


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