Information

How many gigabases of DNA are there on earth?


The human genome is about 770 MB, the C. elegans genome is about 100 MB, the yeast S. cerevisiae is about 12 MB. Different other genomes have been sequenced: how many GB of genomic DNA we have now?

Let say we would like to make a Noah hard-disk ark: how much space would it take to represent the genomes of all known species on earth? There is a way to provide an estimate?

I'm also interested in the total biodiversity: for instance, if two species each have 1 GB genomes and have half of their DNA in common this would count as 1.5 GB.


If you simply take one order of insects, Coleoptera, there are just under 400,000 described species with estimates from 850,000 to 4,000,000 species total in just this order. The number of primates is under 1,000. If your assumption of say 10MB for all other primates would be accurate, just adding in the low end estimate of 850,000 at 10MB per 1000 we are quickly at 8,500GB which seems to be a factorial out of the GB range.

So, we have a broad estimate of non-bacterial of plants, animals etc. at say 8,700,000.

Jason Gans found in a 1 gram of soil survey approximatly 1,000,000 bacterial species.

SO the total accounting for species number is totally impossible to estimate for anything at this time, let alone the genome.

Even for something as "common" as a giraffe, there are up to 9 sub-species with genome differences within each subspecies.

So, once we get them all decribed, we can then work on the genome sequence for each and get you some answers!


According to this paper there is ~ $5.3 imes 10^{34}$ base pairs of DNA on earth. One base pair contains approximately 2 bits worth of information (4 possibilities). So that would be ~ $8.48 imes 10^{35}$ bytes of information.

or more than the total information in all digital and analog technological storage media on earth combined.


DNA: The Ultimate Data-Storage Solution

In a world flooded with data, figuring out where and how to store it efficiently and inexpensively becomes a larger problem every day. One of the most exotic solutions might turn out to be one of the best: archiving information in DNA molecules.

The prevailing long-term cold-storage method, which dates from the 1950s, writes data to pizza-sized reels of magnetic tape. By comparison, DNA storage is potentially less expensive, more energy-efficient and longer lasting. Studies show that DNA properly encapsulated with a salt remains stable for decades at room temperature and should last much longer in the controlled environs of a data center. DNA doesn&rsquot require maintenance, and files stored in DNA are easily copied for negligible cost.

Even better, DNA can archive a staggering amount of information in an almost inconceivably small volume. Consider this: humanity will generate an estimated 33 zettabytes of data by 2025&mdashthat&rsquos 3.3 followed by 22 zeroes. DNA storage can squeeze all that information into a ping-pong ball, with room to spare. The 74 million million bytes of information in the Library of Congress could be crammed into a DNA archive the size of a poppy seed&mdash6,000 times over. Split the seed in half, and you could store all of Facebook&rsquos data.

Science fiction? Hardly. DNA storage technology exists today, but to make it viable, researchers have to clear a few daunting technological hurdles around integrating different technologies. As part of a major collaboration to do that work, our team at Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a key enabling technology for molecular storage. Our software, the Adaptive DNA Storage Codex (ADS Codex), translates data files from the binary language of zeroes and ones that computers understand into the four-letter code biology understands.

ADS Codex is a key part of the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) Molecular Information Storage (MIST) program. MIST seeks to bring cheaper, bigger, longer-lasting storage to big-data operations in government and the private sector, with a short-term goal of writing one terabyte&mdasha trillion bytes&mdashand reading 10 terabytes within 24 hours at a cost of $1,000.

FROM COMPUTER CODE TO GENETIC CODE

When most people think of DNA, they think of life, not computers. But DNA is itself a four-letter code for passing along information about an organism. DNA molecules are made from four types of bases, or nucleotides, each identified by a letter: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). They are the basis of all DNA code, providing the instruction manual for building every living thing on earth.

A fairly well-understood technology, DNA synthesis has been widely used in medicine, pharmaceuticals and biofuel development, to name just a few applications. The technique organizes the bases into various arrangements indicated by specific sequences of A, C, G and T. These bases wrap in a twisted chain around each other&mdashthe familiar double helix&mdashto form the molecule. The arrangement of these letters into sequences creates a code that tells an organism how to form.

The complete set of DNA molecules makes up the genome&mdashthe blueprint of your body. By synthesizing DNA molecules&mdashmaking them from scratch&mdashresearchers have found they can specify, or write, long strings of the letters A, C, G and T and then read those sequences back. The process is analogous to how a computer stores binary information. From there, it was a short conceptual step to encoding a binary computer file into a molecule

The method has been proven to work, but reading and writing the DNA-encoded files currently takes a long time. Appending a single base to DNA takes about one second. Writing an archive file at this rate could take decades, but research is developing faster methods, including massively parallel operations that write to many molecules at once.

NOTHING LOST IN TRANSLATION

ADS Codex tells exactly how to translate the zeros and ones into sequences of four letter-combinations of A, C, G and T. The Codex also handles the decoding back into binary. DNA can be synthesized by several methods, and ADS Codex can accommodate them all.

Unfortunately, compared to traditional digital systems, the error rates while writing to molecular storage with DNA synthesis are very high. These errors arise from a different source than they do in the digital world, making them trickier to correct. On a digital hard disk, binary errors occur when a zero flips to a one, or vice versa. With DNA, the problems come from insertion and deletion errors. For instance, you might be writing A-C-G-T, but sometimes you try to write A, and nothing appears, so the sequence of letters shifts to the left, or it types AAA.

Normal error correction codes don&rsquot work well with that kind of problem, so ADS Codex adds error detection codes that validate the data. When the software converts the data back to binary, it tests to see that the codes match. If they don&rsquot, it removes or adds bases&mdashletters&mdashuntil the verification succeeds.

SMART SCALE-UP

We have completed version 1.0 of ADS Codex, and late this year we plan to use it to evaluate the storage and retrieval systems developed by the other MIST teams. The work fits well with Los Alamos&rsquo history of pioneering new developments in computing as part of our national security mission. Since the 1940s, as an outcome of those computing advancements, we have amassed some of the oldest and largest stores of digital-only data. It still has tremendous value. Because we keep data forever, we&rsquove been at the tip of the spear for a long time when it comes to finding a cold-storage solution, but we&rsquore not alone.

All the world&rsquos data&mdashall your digital photos and tweets all the records of the global financial sector all those satellite images of cropland, troop movements and glacial melting all the simulations underlying so much of modern science and so much more&mdashhave to go somewhere. The &ldquocloud&rdquo isn&rsquot a cloud at all. It is digital data centers in huge warehouses consuming vast amounts of electricity to store (and keep cool) trillions of millions of bytes. Costing billions of dollars to build, power and run, these data centers may struggle to remain viable as the need for data storage continues to grow exponentially.

DNA shows great promise for sating the world&rsquos voracious appetite for data storage. The technology requires new tools and new ways of applying familiar ones. But don&rsquot be surprised if one day the world&rsquos most valuable archives find a new home in a poppy-seed-sized collection of molecules.

Funding for ADS Codex was provided by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), a research agency within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.


What is DNA and how does it work?

DNA is perhaps the most famous biological molecule it is present in all forms of life on earth. But what is DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid? Here, we cover the essentials.

Virtually every cell in your body contains DNA or the genetic code that makes you you. DNA carries the instructions for the development, growth, reproduction, and functioning of all life.

Differences in the genetic code are the reason why one person has blue eyes rather than brown, why some people are susceptible to certain diseases, why birds only have two wings, and why giraffes have long necks.

Amazingly, if all of the DNA in the human body was unraveled, it would reach to the sun and back more than 300 times .

In this article, we break down the basics of DNA, what it is made of, and how it works.

In short, DNA is a long molecule that contains each person’s unique genetic code. It holds the instructions for building the proteins that are essential for our bodies to function.

DNA instructions are passed from parent to child, with roughly half of a child’s DNA originating from the father and half from the mother.

DNA is a two-stranded molecule that appears twisted, giving it a unique shape referred to as the double helix.

Each of the two strands is a long sequence of nucleotides or individual units made of:

  • a phosphate molecule
  • a sugar molecule called deoxyribose, containing five carbons
  • a nitrogen-containing region

There are four types of nitrogen-containing regions called bases:

The order of these four bases forms the genetic code, which is our instructions for life.

The bases of the two strands of DNA are stuck together to create a ladder-like shape. Within the ladder, A always sticks to T, and G always sticks to C to create the “rungs.” The length of the ladder is formed by the sugar and phosphate groups.

Most DNA lives in the nuclei of cells and some is found in mitochondria, which are the powerhouses of the cells.

Because we have so much DNA ( 2 meters in each cell) and our nuclei are so small, DNA has to be packaged incredibly neatly.

Strands of DNA are looped, coiled and wrapped around proteins called histones. In this coiled state, it is called chromatin.

Chromatin is further condensed, through a process called supercoiling, and it is then packaged into structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes form the familiar “X” shape as seen in the image above.

Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 chromosomes in total. Interestingly, fruit flies have 8 chromosomes , and pigeons have 80.

Chromosome 1 is the largest and contains around 8,000 genes. The smallest is chromosome 21 with around 3,000 genes.

Each length of DNA that codes for a specific protein is called a gene. For instance, one gene codes for the protein insulin, the hormone that helps control levels of sugar in the blood. Humans have around 20,000–30,000 genes, although estimates vary .

Our genes only account for around 3 percent of our DNA, the remaining 97 percent is less well understood. The outstanding DNA is thought to be involved in regulating transcription and translation.

For genes to create a protein, there are two main steps:

Transcription: The DNA code is copied to create messenger RNA (mRNA). RNA is a copy of DNA, but it is normally single-stranded. Another difference is that RNA does not contain the base thymine (T), which is replaced by uracil (U).

Translation: The mRNA is translated into amino acids by transfer RNA (tRNA).

mRNA is read in three-letter sections called codons. Each codon codes for a specific amino acid or building block of a protein. For instance, the codon GUG codes for the amino acid valine.

There are 20 possible amino acids.

Telomeres are regions of repeated nucleotides at the end of chromosomes.

They protect the ends of the chromosome from being damaged or fusing with other chromosomes.

They have been likened to the plastic tips on shoelaces that stop them from becoming frayed.

As we age, this protective region steadily becomes smaller. Each time a cell divides and DNA is replicated, the telomere becomes shorter.

Chromosomes are tightly coiled strands of DNA. Genes are sections of DNA that code individual proteins.

Put another way, DNA is the master plan for life on earth and the source of the wonderful variety we see around us.


What Science Says

Studies on the role of genes on health haven’t found that genes can reliably predict the effects of a diet. The PREDICT-1 study from Kings’ College London, for example, analyzed the food intake of 110 identical twin pairs in a clinical setting to find that participants had varying metabolic responses to food depending on meal content, meal context, and non-genetic “individual baseline characteristics,” like body composition and metabolites found in the body’s cells. Less than 30 percent of the variation had to do with the macronutrients of the meals (carbs, proteins and fats), which are a big part of the DNA diet kit recommendations.

A 2015 review of studies published in the OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology explored the role of 38 genes commonly analyzed in nutrigenomics tests, using data from over 500,000 individuals. The review found that there was not a significant relationship between these genes and health outcomes. Another study in JAMA found that genotype didn’t significantly account for weight loss when participants tried low-carb or low-fat diets.

Many nutrigenomics companies list studies on their website to back up their claims. Often, the studies that are cited generally support the link between certain gene variants and how they might influence a person's response to a low-fat diet, or one that's high in protein. But the extent to which genetic differences interact with diet is unclear. Another problem is that there are few clinical trials that actually measure the effectiveness of DNA-tailored diets as compared with other approaches. “The differences between one person and another are really fairly small . when compared to the impact of how we eat, what we eat, and what our [food] preferences are that we get from our culture and how we were raised,” says Murthy.

Zhang doesn’t disagree. “Obviously, it’s a very complex picture,” she says. “At the end of the day, we want to help people do better and be more successful, feeling better, healthier. So if that's our goal, we need to address not only genetics, but also non-genomic genetics, or environmental lifestyle preferences, social determinants of health, all this information together.”


Many Identical Twins Actually Have Slightly Different DNA

Research published on January 7 in the journal Nature Genetics shows that identical twins differ by an average of 5.2 genetic mutations. The authors argue that these small differences between twins’ genetic code could change how scientists study human development.

The study of 381 pairs of identical twins and two sets of identical triplets found that only 38 were genetically identical, Tina Hesman Saey reports for Science News. Most had just a few points of genetic mismatch, but 39 had more than 100 differences in their DNA. The findings could impact future studies of the ways that the environment affects disease and human development. In such studies, scientists often assume that pairs of identical twins have identical DNA, so their differences can be explained by the environments they grew up in.

“Before you can make that interpretation, you’d better make sure that one of them does not have a de novo [randomly introduced] mutation in an important gene that the other one does not,” says Kari Stefansson, CEO of DeCODE Genetics and lead author of the new study, to the Scientist magazine’s Catherine Offord. “So this certainly places a new kind of burden on those who use identical twins to establish the separation between nature and nurture.”

The researchers sequenced the full DNA code of cells found in cheek swabs and blood samples from not only the twins, but also their parents, their children, and their children’s other parent, Nicoletta Lanese reports for Live Science. With three generations of genetic information, the researchers could not only figure out where specific mutations appeared in the DNA code, but when, by determining at what stage in their embryonic development the mutations occurred.

The genetic mutations observed in the study mostly involved a single building block of the DNA code, called a base, mistakenly swapped for a different one. In some cases, letters were either inserted or deleted. Working at the scale of a human genome, a few changes may not cause much of a difference.

"Such genomic differences between identical twins are still very rare,” says University of Pennsylvania computational biologist Ziyue Gao, who wasn’t involved in the study, to Live Science. The human genome is six billion base pairs long, and the study did not make it clear how many of the mutations would cause significant changes. She adds, “I doubt these differences will have appreciable contribution to phenotypic [or observable] differences in twin studies.”

The mutations covered in the study tend to appear while a cell is replicating, or dividing itself, to create more cells. During that process, the cell has to completely copy all six billion base pairs, and sometimes it makes mistakes. The cell has machinery to correct mistakes, but even those go wrong sometimes, leaving behind small typos. If such a typo is created in a bundle of cells early in human development, then when the bundle splits into two parts, the mutation might not reach both parts equally.

“We have found a twin pair where one of the twins has mutations in all cells of his body, and they are not found in any cell in the body of the other twin. That means basically that one of the twins is formed solely from the descendant of the cell where the mutation took place,” says Stefansson to the Scientist. “Then we have found twins when the mutation is found in all cells in the body of one of the twins, and in 20 percent of the cells in the body of the other twin. So one of the twins has just formed from the descendant of this one cell where the mutation happened, and the other is formed in part by descendants of that cells and in part by something else.”

The study compared the twins’ DNA to their parents and children to find out when the mutation happened during their development. If the mutation happened very early, then the mutation could be passed along to their children, because it would have ended up in their sperm or eggs. Mutations that happen later in embryonic development might only appear in a person’s non-reproductive cells.

Uppsala University geneticist Jan Dumanski tells the Associated Press’ Christina Larson that the study is “a clear and important contribution” to medical research.

Stefansson adds that the implications go beyond nature-and-nurture twin studies.

“This is not just a study that has relevance when it comes to understanding of the genetics, but also human development: How do we probe early human development in an ethical manner, a non-interventional manner? This is one way of doing that,” he says to the Scientist magazine. “We can begin to use the mutations to develop [an] understanding of how cells are allocated from the early embryo to develop the various organs in the body.”


The German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter not only discovered ultraviolet radiation in 1801, but also invented the first battery the following year. Ritter was also interested in galvanism — a term applied to muscle contractions caused by electric shocks. The fact that he died at the age of 33 is said to have been due in part to the galvanic self-experiments with which he maltreated his body.

Researchers and their self-experiments


Preparing your personal CHIP that will allow you to live an immortal life. A life in a world of people who prefer to be like a god instead of loving each other and allowing another to be before you. Next New WEAPON used against you. “Do what I say or die an early death?” THE DNA WAVE! Using your own genomes to bring on a perfectly healthy life at the sound age of 25 and the lives of all you love. Emotional weapons against you and those you love. Ask Holy Spirit to join you as you discover information of this new world. Remember: Jesus Christ did not have this information and was able to heal those around him and then move on into an Immortal Life. They had NO POWER over HIM!

Who created the ‘aliens’. GOD of course….If you do not believe in God – then you do not believe in aliens…

does this mean that aliens ejaculated in space? The sperm froze and desended down onto planets where eggs were just laying around waiting to be fertilized? Sorry, couldnt help myself.

It’s ok. Now go to dinner ‘cuz I think your mom is calling you.

There is no such thing as “junk DNA” there is DNA that we do not understand.

But that is what it’s called in many circles. That’s why they put quotation marks on that phrase.

Yes, I know that is what they call it. I only had one year of biology in college but I always thought they should call it DNA that we do not yet understand.

Well there is apparently some DNA that performs very little or no function at all, and the stuff that is called junk DNA is simply DNA that doesn’t code for proteins. For this reason, non-coding DNA is what we should call the DNA itself, and yes there is plenty we do not yet understand about it, including finding function for DNA previously thought to be non-functional, although this is highly unlikely to be the case for all thought-to-be non-functional non-coding DNA. It is likely that buried deeply within what was previously called junk DAN wholesale, there is actually some, albeit significantly less than previously thought, true “junk” DNA.

The realm of what we including scientists don’t understand is enormous and I think it is arrogant and egotistical on the part of scientists to simply write things off as “Junk.” Just because they can’t find anything useful of the DNA that seems empty and useless doesn’t mean that’s the last and final word. Due to scientists limitations and narrowly constructed theories they could easily be overlooking and not aware of what’s really there in the seemingly Junk DNA. Most of the world, scientists included think mainly on a linear way which makes it easy for them to disregard anything that doesn’t fit in their line of thinking. Take for instance “Beyond Time and Space.” This is something that can’t be proven to exist with mathematical equations, theories, or written formulas. However, one time in my life I personally experienced being in this consciousness state of being and while I was there I felt the incredible undeniable experience of the vibration and power of creation and it was so overwhelmingly beautiful that I didn’t ever want to come back, but that wasn’t up to me as I was slowly slipping away to the speed of light and I was back. Oh how I wish I could figure out how I got there, but the more important thing is I was there and am ever grateful for that experience and that one time experience engraved a place in my heart for the rest of my life which changed me forever on. There are so many things that don’t fit in the limited mind, but there is a greater force that keeps this universe together.

Ever thought that you what experienced was really just a dream?

When I have a dream it’s clear to me that’s exactly what it was and when I focus inwardly in meditation the experience I have there is also very clear to me and I Know without a doubt that what I feel the experience of there is the reality of feeling Happiness and Peace which remains with me throughout the entire day.

Thats very interesting, your one of the lucky ones, to have experienced what you did.
On another note ..
I know its just a movie but the core of the story of Prometheus is much more buyable to me and personally I accept thats what probably happened here on earth regarding us humans and the rest of the animals on this planet.
I also believe that the basic story behind the bible could be true but instead of God , Jesus , angels etc these characters were actually an extra terrestrial race

As intriguing as the many many things that we “believe” are, the most important thing in our lives is what we actually “Know” have “Knowledge” of. Almost everyone’s life’s including my own are built mostly on things we “believe” which is nothing more than that emptiness that is valueless. There’s nothing wrong with studying past Masters, Scriptures, Historical writings, Aliens and Extraterrestrials, as well as the almost countless facets of the Universe, but first things first Are you Happy? Why are you here? Do you Know your purpose in life? I know for myself all of the major main questions of life I had was answered when, “I received the Knowledge of my True-self” and I instantly Knew WHO I was and I instantly Knew my Purpose in life, and I Instantly Knew How to Connect to the True and Real Peace/Happiness in my life that was and always has been right inside of me. And, the Great thing is, it’s also inside of each and every living Human being on this Earth.

I’ve now read a great many of the comments under this topic expressing different opinions about the Bible and I must say, from my own personal experience, that what I find makes me the most complete and feeling the experience of happiness, peace, joy or whichever word words or phrase of words one chooses to express that most wonderful feeling inside of myself. This feeling is not limited to me, but exists in every single living Human being on the face of this earth. Each Human being is born with this innate feeling of peace and happiness inside of themselves. Why does a baby laugh and giggle when no one is around, because they feel that innate happiness inside of themselves. As we grow older and we are introduced to more things in this world that we see, touch, and feel where our attention is drawn more and more outwardly away from that place of happiness inside of us. Then one day we no longer recognize or remember that place of happiness inside ourselves. Socrates and several others have said: “Know Thyself.” The Knowledge of ones true-self is the place inside of us where the answers of life exist and is the place where it’s possible to feel peace and happiness each day of our life.

Nicely put. But don’t bother explaining this to others…. it just pisses them off

Who is not of this Earth…
—->extraterrestrial——>alien

hahahaaaaa! which god? there aint no god!

Ancient Code, fake news stories is simply not the way. Do your homework first. Thx

and this is what i have said all along and has been hidden from us with such as religion sorry but it is truth always said the people should have a right to know dna and publicly publicise we have all been mind bended to long from the truth what is in us all will not go away it is our makeup of being human beings

All that work and planing to make an intelligent human and we are reverting back to the monkey mind…

This is awful internet click bait. The real story should be how stupid humans are.

then this must make you stupid because you clicked on the bait?

No. It’s prudent for anyone to read and evaluate claims like this. One should always have an open mind. Considering how wild the claim of this article it is, it would have likely been safe to simply skip the article. However having an open mind means taking the time to entertain even the wildest claims, from time to time anything is possible in principle. However our friend here seems to be sorely disappointing with the results of his inquiry, as am I. Poor research, and poor understanding of the relevant underlying science set my science literacy senses tingling, and tell me that this is a pretty garbage article.

Exactly. I was hoping for a peer reviewed paper. It turns out that this story is actually from 2011, which is even sadder than I originally thought.

Anyone that would say this doesn’t understand my original statement. In which case, the statement is referring to you.

Okay here’s a big piece of the truth.. any rational mind that reads this though that lives life with their head buried in the sand should most definitely sit down before doing so.
The truth when you open your mind past ridicule and fear and look at every single piece of the puzzle, remembering that obviously each one would be equally as important as the last.. is that these people who came from the sky (the heavens, up) the gods that every ancient culture tells us about (the Elohim in the bible) created mankind in their image and after their likeness through genetic manipulation (eve gene, 4000+ genetic defects, sunburn, eyes, birth, GMO’s, domesticated plants and animals) with their DNA and the DNA from the highest evolved primate on the planet at the time (bigfoot kept from us today, us being primates, reason for the Bible, creation history and why we are completely different than every other species on this planet with unexplained places all around the world with up to 2000 ton rocks cut lifted and moved into planetary alignments, places we can’t even comprehend but tell ourselves we must have built them)..
Then educated humanity through the ages with the help of various messengers (prophets) with whom they had made contact. Each messenger was given a message suitable for the level of understanding (reason for races and why we can interbreed) prevailing at the time, with the primary purpose of instilling basic principles of non-violence knowledge and respect. Once humanity reached a sufficient level of scientific understanding, the Elohim (Aliens today, the gods) decided to make themselves more visible in UFO sightings to begin to convince us of reality (The only real reason anyone thinks it’s crazy is because of movies. What are movies. ). The knowledge has been known but has been suppressed through the ages in secret societies (The illuminati, those with the light.. with the truth), the elite, the 1% controlling the world’s privately owned privately controlled money..(why all the presidents are related through blood).. The money that controls and funds every little thing you can think of but especially our education and information.. They openly admit through the Freemasons because they know we’re all to ignorant to understand and put it together that Lucifer is in fact God.. We think lucifers a red demon dude that lives underground with horns for some reason… search what Lucifer means in Latin..(the bringer of light.. bringer of truth) And that’s where Satanism comes from and the reason why they flaunt it everywhere through money, music industry, symbols, architecture, everywhere when you start looking. That’s only a piece, tip of the iceberg.. Even though already it’s mind-boggling mental. It’s up for people to realize the truth because of indeed the importance and what is in fact coming, good or bad I’m not 100% sure, that’s why I look for intelligent conversations most of the time… try to figure it out.. By failing to prepare you’re preparing to fail.
Some very big clues point towards the elite just getting wiped out because of all the evil and suffering they’ve caused and all the lies that they’ve told.. we could end up seeing a golden mind-boggling age.. But at the same time there’s also very big clues that the biblical war to end all wars is/could be very close.. Clues that point toward this elite purposely making us all evil in the eyes of our creators (reason for evolution best of the best, hunting for no reason at all, war and most definitely ignorance) and too set in place us being horrified of even the idea of aliens so when they do show up to help their extremely confused creation we go crazy, kill each other, steal everything and just shoot as soon as they show because we’re being told to… By the people killing us and lying to us (watch the film Thrive). Again look at the clues and realize people that this is very very big and I am here always dying to have an intelligent conversation earthling to earthling.. Bible- Adam is not a name in Hebrew, it’s a different language remember.. literally means earth, the Adam the earthling.. Elohim (the gods) said let US make the Adam (the earthling) in OUR image after OUR likeness. If you came up with even a ten minute story and lined up 100 people and told the first in line is it going to be your story when you ask the last person to tell it to you? No…Now mix different languages in there too. How we’ve discredited the oldest piece of literature only because of that fact is beyond me. The bible has gone through so much time through so many people and their languages that logic and rational thinking would say now it would obviously be completely bent. But while logic and rational thinking tells us that it also tells us the first ones would be a lot closer to the truth. If I asked you to line up any another animal of its species how much can you tell each of them apart from one another? A line of black bears a line of white tailed deer a line of anything else.. Line up a row of people at any time throughout history and unless you think we all looked exactly the same at one point.. we all look completely different. Funny that every ancient culture clearly says that the gods that came down and created us look almost no different. Made in their image and after their likeness. All anyone really needs to do is come to the simple and very obvious realization that people 5000 years ago did not think or talk like we do today… Research sound, frequency, resonance and vibration keeping in mind Nicola Tesla’s work and very important quote- if you want to understand the universe think of energy frequency and vibration.. (or right after reading this go watch that 30 minute frequency documentary Sonic geometry the language of frequency and form) Then research Atoms and the fact that EVERYTHING is made up of Atoms.. and that Atoms are in Constant Vibration.. Giving off frequency… Then go back to that Bible that so many have wrong or just call it crazy and read- In the beginning there was the word (sound, frequency, vibration), and that word (sound frequency vibration) is God… If you’ve read this far and that doesn’t just blow your freaking mind then I’m sorry because that means nothing but material objects ever will..
Laugh all you want it’s the truth.. As bent as it may be.. History is far crazier and far more interesting than we’re being led to “believe”.. Purposely!
Again 2012 breakthrough energy conference, it’s only two hours so if it’s so crazy how much harm could it do to watch? The guy can explain it way better than I will ever be able to.. or if it’s for me to say spend the two hours listening to the most logical person I’ve come across in this time we’re living in.. Film called An Evening with Lloyd Pye. Or because of the importance learn true history, Zecharia Sitchin’s books The Earth Chronicles. The guy spent his whole life looking for the truth that makes sense without any bullshit getting in the way. The truth that will make you realize that neither evolution or God are wrong, they are both right we’ve just always had it wrong.

Trey Smith has a lot of knowledge on that as well and a bunch of vids on the tube he gets real technical about it


DNA Study Finds Aboriginal Australians World’s Oldest Civilization

The newly published paper is the first extensive DNA study of Aboriginal Australians, according to the University of Cambridge. Working in close collaboration with indigenous Australian elders and leaders, an international team of researchers obtained permission to extract DNA from the saliva of 83 Aboriginal Australians and 25 Papuans from New Guinea and sequence their complete genetic information.

Credit: Pete Turner/Getty Images

While some scholars have theorized that indigenous Australians descended from a separate, earlier migration than that of Eurasian people, the study’s authors report that the majority of non-Africans stem from a single ancestral group of migrants who left Africa approximately 72,000 years ago and eventually spread across the other continents. While European and Asian ancestral groups became distinct in the genetic record around 42,000 years ago, the researchers say that occurred even earlier𠅊pproximately 58,000 years ago—in the case of indigenous Papuan and Australian ancestral groups as they ventured eastward.

“Our results suggest that, rather than having left in a separate wave, most of the genomes of Papuans and Aboriginal Australians can be traced back to a single ‘Out of Africa’ event which led to modern worldwide populations,” said Manjinder Sandhu, a senior author from the Sanger Institute and University of Cambridge, in a statement released by the university. “There may have been other migrations, but the evidence so far points to one exit event.”

Around 50,000 years ago, the wave of migration reached Sahul, a prehistoric supercontinent composed of present-day Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea prior to their separation by rising sea levels 10,000 years ago. At that time, according to the study’s authors, Aboriginal Australians became genetically isolated, making it the world’s oldest civilization.

Aboriginal hunter in the Australian Outback. (Credit: Grant Faint/Getty Images)

The study also found that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from each other about 37,000 years ago, although the reason is unclear because the water separation between New Guinea and Australia had yet to be completed. The researchers theorize the break could have been attributed to early flooding of the Carpentaria Basin that left Australia connected to New Guinea by only a narrow, impassable strip of land. By 31,000 years ago, Aboriginal Australian communities became genetically isolated and started to diverge greatly from one another, likely due to the development of the inhospitable desert in the interior of the continent.

“The genetic diversity among Aboriginal Australians is amazing,” said Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, one of the lead authors and an assistant professor at the Universities of Copenhagen and Bern. �use the continent has been populated for such a long time, we find that groups from southwestern Australia are genetically more different from northeastern Australia, than, for example, Native Americans are from Siberians.”

Scholars have long been flummoxed as to why the language spoken by 90 percent of Australia’s Aborigines is relatively young𠅊pproximately 4,000 years old according to language experts—if their ancestors had occupied the continent so much earlier. One possible answer has been that a second migration into Australia by people speaking this language occurred around 4,000 years ago. The authors of the new study, however, say a previously unidentified internal dispersal of Aborigines that swept from the northeast across Australia around that time led to the linguistic and cultural linking of the continent’s indigenous people. Although they had a sweeping impact on ancient Australian culture, these “ghost-like” migrants mysteriously disappeared from the genetic record.

Credit: Ingetje Tadros/Getty Images

“It’s a really weird scenario,” said evolutionary geneticist Eske Willerslev, a lead author of the study and a professor at the Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen. 𠇊 few immigrants appear in different villages and communities around Australia. They change the way people speak and think then they disappear, like ghosts. And people just carry on living in isolation the same way they always have. This may have happened for religious or cultural reasons that we can only speculate about. But in genetic terms, we have never seen anything like it before.”

One other notable finding from the DNA study is evidence of an “uncharacterized” hominin group that interbred with modern humans as they migrated through southeast Asia on their way to Australia. According to the study, around four percent of the Aboriginal Australian genome comes from this unknown human relative. “We don’t know who these people were, but they were a distant relative of Denisovans (an extinct human species from Siberia), and the Papuan/Australian ancestors probably encountered them close to Sahul,” Willerslev said.

FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.


Dealing With Too Much DNA

Eukaryotes arose about 2 billion years ago, when a bacterium that could metabolize oxygen for energy took up residence inside an archaeal cell. That symbiotic partnership was revolutionary because energy production from that proto-mitochondrion suddenly made expressing genes much more metabolically affordable, Martin argues. The new eukaryotes suddenly had free rein to expand the size and diversity of their genomes and to conduct myriad evolutionary experiments, laying the foundation for the countless eukaryotic innovations seen in life today. “Eukaryotes are an archaeal genetic apparatus that survives with the help of bacterial energy metabolism,” Martin said.

Share this article

Copied!

Newsletter

Get Quanta Magazine delivered to your inbox

Eukaryotes arose about 2 billion years ago through a partnership between two simple prokaryotes. An archaeal cell (left) became the permanent host of endosymbiotic bacteria (right), which evolved into energy-producing mitochondria.

Imachi H, Nobu MK and JAMSTEC DENNIS KUNKEL MICROSCOPY / Science Source

But the early eukaryotes went through serious growing pains as their genomes expanded: The larger genome brought new problems stemming from the need to manage an increasingly unwieldy string of DNA. That DNA had to be accessible to the cell’s machinery for transcribing and replicating it without getting tangled up in a hopeless spaghetti ball.

The DNA also sometimes needed to be compact, both to help regulate transcription and regulation, and to separate the identical copies of DNA during cell division. And one danger of careless compaction is that DNA strands can irreversibly bind together if the backbone of one interacts with the groove of another, rendering the DNA useless.

Bacteria have a solution for this that involves a variety of proteins jointly “supercoiling” the cells’ relatively limited libraries of DNA. But eukaryotes’ DNA management solution is to use histone proteins, which have a unique ability to wrap DNA around themselves rather than just sticking to it. The four primary histones of eukaryotes — H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 — assemble into octamers with two copies of each. These octamers, called nucleosomes, are the basic units of eukaryotic DNA packaging.

By curving the DNA around the nucleosome, the histones prevent it from clumping together and keep it functional. It’s an ingenious solution — but eukaryotes didn’t invent it entirely on their own.

Back in the 1980s, when the cellular and molecular biologist Kathleen Sandman was a postdoc at Ohio State University, she and her adviser, John Reeve, identified and sequenced the first known histones in archaea. They showed how the four principal eukaryotic histones were related to each other and to the archaeal histones. Their work provided the early evidence that in the original endosymbiotic event that led to eukaryotes, the host was likely to have been an archaeal cell.

But it would be a teleological mistake to think that archaeal histones were just waiting for the arrival of eukaryotes and the chance to enlarge their genomes. “A lot of these early hypotheses looked at histones in terms of their ability to allow the cell to expand its genome. But that doesn’t really tell you why they were there in the first place,” said Siavash Kurdistani, a biochemist at the University of California, Los Angeles.

As a first step toward those answers, Sandman joined forces several years ago with the structural biologist Karolin Luger, who solved the structure of the eukaryotic nucleosome in 1997. Together, they worked out the crystallized structure of the archaeal nucleosome, which they published with colleagues in 2017. They found that the archaeal nucleosomes are “uncannily similar” in structure to eukaryotic nucleosomes, Luger said — despite the marked differences in their peptide sequences.

Archaeal nucleosomes had already “figured out how to bind and bend DNA in this beautiful arc,” said Luger, now a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at the University of Colorado, Boulder. But the difference between the eukaryotic and archaeal nucleosomes is that the crystal structure of the archaeal nucleosome seemed to form looser, Slinky-like assemblies of varying sizes.

In a paper in eLife published in March, Luger, her postdoc Samuel Bowerman, and Jeff Wereszczynski of the Illinois Institute of Technology followed up on the 2017 paper. They used cryo-electron microscopy to solve the structure of the archaeal nucleosome in a state more representative of a live cell. Their observations confirmed that the structures of archaeal nucleosomes are less fixed. Eukaryotic nucleosomes are always stably wrapped by about 147 base pairs of DNA, and always consist of just eight histones. (For eukaryotic nucleosomes, “the buck stops at eight,” Luger said.) Their equivalents in archaea wind up between 60 and 600 base pairs. These “archaeasomes” sometimes hold as few as three histone dimers, but the largest ones consist of as many as 15 dimers.

They also found that unlike the tight eukaryotic nucleosomes, the Slinky-like archaeasomes flop open stochastically, like clamshells. The researchers suggested that this arrangement simplifies gene expression for the archaea, because unlike eukaryotes, they don’t need any energetically expensive supplemental proteins to help unwind DNA from the histones to make them available for transcription.

That’s why Tobias Warnecke, who studies archaeal histones at Imperial College London, thinks that “there’s something special that must have happened at the dawn of eukaryotes, where we transition from just having simple histones … to having octameric nucleosomes. And they seem to be doing something qualitatively different.”

What that is, however, is still a mystery. In archaeal species, there are “quite a few that have histones, and there are other species that don’t have histones. And even those that do have histones vary quite a lot,” Warnecke said. Last December, he published a paper showing that there are diverse variants of histone proteins with different functions. The histone-DNA complexes vary in their stability and affinity for DNA. But they are not as stably or regularly organized as eukaryotic nucleosomes.

As puzzling as the diversity of archaeal histones is, it provides an opportunity to understand the different possible ways of building systems of gene expression. That’s something we cannot glean from the relative “boringness” of eukaryotes, Warnecke says: Through understanding the combinatorics of archaeal systems, “we can also figure out what’s special about eukaryotic systems.” The variety of different histone types and configurations in archaea may also help us deduce what they might have been doing before their role in gene regulation solidified.


Viruses

What is a Virus?

Viruses are made up of genetic material (either DNA or RNA ), surrounded by a protective protein coat. Some animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid (fatty) membrane. A virus is not an independently living organism. Viruses only exist to make more viruses, and unless a virus is inside a living cell, it is inactive and cannot make copies of itself. When a virus or part of a virus successfully penetrates a cell, we call this an infection.

Depending on the virus, either the entire virus enters the cell, or the genetic material alone is "injected" into the cell while the external coat remains outside. In the case of the T4 bacteriophage - a type of virus that infects certain bacteria - the inner DNA is injected into the cell to be infected.On the other hand, the entire AIDS virus (called HIV), enters human T-cells to infect them.

In either case, the result of viral infection is that the virus' genetic material gets into the cell cytoplasm, which contains all the necessary enzymes and other materials that are needed for the replication of the virus' genetic material and the synthesis of its proteins.

Why is a Viral Infection Harmful to a Cell?

A virus is harmful to the cell it infects, because it "hijacks" the cell's gene and protein-making machinery, causing the production of only virus parts. Once these are made, they assemble into tons of new viruses, which fill up the cell.

These new viruses either leave the cell a few at a time (budding) or by a process called lysis, where the cellular membrane breaks open and releases all the virus particles at once. The ultimate result is that the host cell is killed, while the released virus particles go on to infect other cells.

Retroviruses A Different Type of Infection

Sometimes, a virus doesn't hijack the cell machinery as soon as it infects the cell. Retroviruses, which possess RNA as their core genetic material carry with them a special enzyme that uses RNA to make a complementary double-stranded DNA molecule. The enzyme (known as reverse transcriptase), synthesizes DNA from the virus' RNA and that DNA can become incorporated into the host cell's genome located in the nucleus.

During a latency period, the viral genes lie dormant within the host cell's chromosomes. Many stretches of the human genome are believed to consist of endogenous retroviruses, which are ancient, defective retrovirus DNA which became incorporated thousands of years ago and which have been present, without causing any adverse effects, ever since. We might say that the "latency period" of these viruses is practically infinite! On the other hand, the HIV virus (a retrovirus) has a considerably shorter latency period (the average is about 8 years).

After the latency period, the virus genes will be turned on and by the usual process of protein synthesis , will hijack the cell's machinery, making viral RNA and proteins, causing virus particles to be produced.

Since retroviruses are very good at incorporating their own genetic material into their host cell's genome, they are often used as recombinant DNA vectors. That is, if we want to incorporate a specific gene that was isolated, developed or altered using genetic engineering (this is what is meant by recombinant), into a cell's genome, we add the gene into the DNA of a retrovirus, remove the harmful parts of the retrovirus DNA that cause cell hijacking', and use the retrovirus to carry the desired gene into the cell. When we allow the modified virus to infect the host cell, the viral DNA, along with the new gene, gets incorporated into the host cell genome. A more complete description of this process can be found in the Genetic Engineering and Gene Therapy sections.