List of all reported bacteria

List of all reported bacteria

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I would like to know were to download a table file with all reported bacteria and its corresponding PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY.

Basically, its the same table than this one from GOLD genomes but containing the non-sequenced bacteria too:

Thanks for you help, Bernardo

I am not sure if such a complete list exists. There are some lists available, which look pretty complete. Have a look at Labrat and Microbexpert. There is also a book available, which contains an approved list of bacterial names, see here. Otherwise you can of course search your way through PubMed and see, what comes out.

List of epidemics

This is a list of the largest known epidemics and pandemics caused by an infectious disease. Widespread non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included. An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic. [1]

Due to the long time spans, the first plague pandemic (6th century–8th century) and the second plague pandemic (14th century–early 19th century) are shown by individual outbreaks, such as the Plague of Justinian (first pandemic) and the Black Death (second pandemic). On the other hand, tuberculosis (TB) became epidemic in Europe in the 18th and 19th century, showing a seasonal pattern, and is still taking place globally. [2] [3] [4] The morbidity and mortality of TB and HIV/AIDS have been closely linked, known as "TB/HIV syndemic". [4] [5] However, due to lack of sources which describe major TB epidemics with definite time spans and death tolls, they are currently not included in the following lists.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE)

Enterobacterales are a large order of different types of germs (bacteria) that commonly cause infections in healthcare settings. Examples of germs in the Enterobacterales order include Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Antibiotic resistance occurs when the germs no longer respond to the antibiotics designed to kill them. Enterobacterales bacteria are constantly finding new ways to avoid the effects of the antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause.

When Enterobacterales develop resistance to the group of antibiotics called carbapenems, the germs are called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE).

CRE are difficult to treat because they do not respond to commonly used antibiotics. Occasionally CRE are resistant to all available antibiotics. CRE are a threat to public health.

In 2020, a taxonomy change was adopted to use &ldquoEnterobacterales&rdquo as the name of a new scientific order. &ldquoEnterobacteriaceae &rdquo are now a family within the &ldquoEnterobacterales&rdquo order, along with Erwinaceae, Pectobacteriaceae, Yersiniaceae, Hafniaceae, Morganellaceae, and Budvicaceae.

Paper Topics for Microbiology: Bacteria and Viruses

You may want to start your paper by choosing a specific bacterium, Archean, or virus and subsequently focus to something you find particularly interesting about that organism. Alternatively, you may want to choose a current issue or problem in microbiology and focus on the problem, covering the relevant organism from that perspective. However, it is absolutely required that you discuss the pertinent biology of the organisms you are studying in your paper.

Please talk to the instructors and we can provide you with more specifics on the topics listed below. Please do not feel constrained by these suggestions. Follow your own creative idea!

Bacteria with cytoskeletons/evolutionary tree

Biofilm formation in disease, the environment, or industry

Quorum sensing: how bacteria communicate

Development in prokaryotes- spore formation, Caulobacter , Myxococcus , Streptomyces

Life in extreme environments

Biodegradation of anthropogenic compounds (PCB's, dioxins pesticides, etc.) by bacteria

Antibiotic/antiviral resistance mechanisms

How to prevent antibiotic resistance

Symbiotic relationships between bacteria and other organisms

Viable, but non-culturable organisms

Anti-bacterial effects of spices

Emerging infectious diseases

Norwalk viruses and cruise ship outbreaks

Pathogenesis of agents of concern- anthrax, smallpox, etc.

Preparedness response- vaccines, antibiotic stockpiling, drills

Pathogens and links to chronic disease

Helicobacter pylori and ulcers

Chlamydia pneumoniae and heart disease

Chlamydia and infertility

Pathogens and links to malignancy

Human herpes virus and Kaposi sarcoma

Papilloma virus and cervical cancer

Human T cell leukemia virus and leukemia

Epstein Barr virus and lymphoproloferative disorders

Pathogenesis (many bacteria and viruses can be examined in this context)

Novel pharmaceutical products from bacteria or Archaea from extreme environments.

Gene therapy using viral vectors

Use of PCR and DNA fingerprinting for characterization of bacterial communities in soil, biofilms or host environments.

Streak-stab technique

Often when inoculating a BAP to observe hemoloysis patterns, investigators will also stab several times through the agar using an inoculating loop. This stab allows for the detection of streptolysin O, a specific hemolysin produced by Streptococcus pyogenes . This hemolysin is inactivated by O2 and is only seen subsurface (in an anaerobic environment) around the stab mark. Note the oval-shaped areas of clearing around the stab marks in the picture below these are caused by streptolysin O.

Scientific Nomenclature

Italics are used for bacterial and viral taxa at the level of family and below. All bacterial and many viral genes are italicized. Serovars of Salmonella enterica are not italicized.

For organisms other than bacteria, fungi, and viruses, scientific names of taxa above the genus level (families, orders, etc.) should be in roman type.

Because abbreviations for restriction endonucleases are derived from the name of the organism (usually bacteria) from which they are isolated, they should be italicized.

SmaI was isolated from Serratia marcescens.

Taq polymerase, which is used in PCRs, was isolated from Thermus aquaticus.

Use italics for genus and species in virus names.

Italicize species, variety or subspecies, and genus when used in the singular. Do not italicize or capitalize genus name when used in the plural.

Listeria monocytogenes is

&helliplisteria are salmonellae mycobacteria

The genus Salmonella consists of only 2 species: S. enterica (divided into 6 subspecies) and S. bongori. Most salmonellae encountered in EID will be serotypes (serovars) belonging to S. enterica. Put the genus and species in italics, followed by initially capped serotype in Roman (e.g., Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi). The genus shorthand &ldquoS.&rdquo should never be used without a species name

Correct: S. enterica serovar Typhimurium

Correct: S. enterica ser. Typhimurium

Incorrect: Salmonella Typhimurium

Serotypes belonging to other subspecies are designated by their antigenic formulae following the subspecies name (e.g., S. enterica subspecies diarizonae 60:k:z or S. IIIb 60:k:z).

For an article about 1 genus, the author can use abbreviation to introduce new species.

We studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. putida, P. fluorescens, and P. denitrificans.

For an article about multiple genera that each have a different abbreviation, the author can use abbreviation to introduce new species.

We studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, P. putida, and S. felis.

For an article about multiple genera, some of which have the same abbreviation, write out first mention of new species. Abbreviate later.

We studied the relationship between Trypanosoma cruzi and Triatoma infestans.

We found the relationship between T. infestans and T. cruzi to be.

For an article about several species of the same genus, the genus must be spelled out only in the title and at first use in the abstract, text, tables, and figures. It may subsequently be abbreviated for other species.

We studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. putida, and P. fluorescens.

However, if >1 genus begins with the same letter in an article, the full genus name must be spelled out the first time it is used with a new species. On subsequent mentions of a species, the genus may be abbreviated.

Ticks were discovered on Canis lupus, Canis latrans, Cerdocyon thous, and Chrysocyon brachyurus, but C. lupus hosted the greatest number of ticks.


Italicize family, genus, species, and variety or subspecies. Begin family and genus with a capital letter. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, and suborder begin with a capital letter but are not italicized. If a generic plural for an organism exists (see Dorland&rsquos), it is neither capitalized nor italicized.

family Mycobacteriaceae, order Actinomycetales

Binary genus-species combinations are always used in the singular. Genus used alone (capitalized and italicized) is usually used in the singular, but it may be used in the plural (not italicized) if it refers to all species within that genus.

Salmonellae are ubiquitous&hellip

Do not use spaces for MRSA isolates.


Use Valley fever, not Valley Fever, when referring coccidioidomycosis. The use of a lowercase &ldquof&rdquo in &ldquofever&rdquo is consistent with use in the Communicable Diseases Manual and with AMA style for Rift Valley fever.


Gene designations are generally italicized, which helps clarify whether the writer is referring to a gene or to another entity that might be confused with a gene. Style for genes varies according to organism.

There is no real consensus on style of depicting acronyms for Plasmodium genes, except that when referred to as genes, they are italicized when referred to as proteins, they are not. The style is more dependent on the particular journal. In molecular microbiology the gene and species abbreviation, i.e., pf, is italicized and all of the term is in lowercase pfmdr1, pfatp6, pvdhfr. This particular gene was presented in The Lancet as PfATPase6. The main idea is to be consistent throughout the manuscript.

Acronyms for Plasmodium genes are italicized when referring to a gene. When referring to a protein they are not italicized.

Many virus gene names are written in italics and are traditionally 3 letters, lowercase, although some will be written in all caps, roman. No definitive rules exist for naming such genes, and you will see them described in a variety of different ways.

Bacteria gene names are always written in italics.

Fungus gene names are generally treated the same as virus gene names (i.e., 3 italicized letters, lowercase). With a multigene family, a numeric notation is included. When different alleles of the same gene are noted, the terminology allows for a superscript.

Mitochondrial genes add an &ldquomt&rdquo prefix to the 3- or 4-letter gene, which may or may not be in lowercase. Drug target genes are all capped, no italics.

xyz1 (different alleles of same gene)

mtLSU (mitochondrial genes)

DHPS and DHFR (drug target genes)

Cholera toxin gene is written as ctx, and cholera toxin gene subunit A is written as ctxA.

Insertion sequences are written as &ldquoIS&rdquo plus an italicized number (IS6110).

Human gene names are all caps and italicized. May be all uppercase Latin letters or a combination of uppercase letters and Arabic numbers, ideally no longer than 6 characters. Initial character is always a letter. No subscript, superscript, roman numerals, or Greek letters are used.

Similar gene names may exist for humans and mice. For example, AMA Manual of Style lists the following genes:

CD5 antigen: Cd5 (mice) and CD5 (humans)

A list of human gene names is available at


Proteins, the combinations of amino acids that make up plants and animals, including humans, often have the same name as a gene but are not italicized and always begin with a capital letter. For example, 1 of the outer surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi is named outer surface protein A. It is encoded by ospA (the gene), and the protein is OspA.

Proteins often have common names (e.g., &beta-galactosidase is the gene product of lacZ).

How to tell difference between proteins and genes? If a term is combined with 1 of the following words, it is probably describing a gene:

Promoter (e.g., P2 core promoter [of myc gene]) promoters are parts of genes, not proteins

Terminator, operator, attenuator sites

If term is combined with one of following words, it is probably describing a protein.

Repress&mdasha protein represses, a gene doesn&rsquot.

React&mdasha protein reacts, a gene doesn&rsquot

Elevated levels of ____ [A common usage error is for authors to write &ldquoelevated myc&rdquo when they mean: &ldquoelevated levels of myc.&rdquo]

Italicizing MMR is another common usage error. This term, which means &ldquomismatch repair,&rdquo is never a gene, just an abbreviation for a process. But you may see &ldquoMice with specific alterations in a number of MMR genes have been developed&hellip&rdquo

Restriction Enzymes

Restriction enzymes are identified with a 3-letter designation of the bacterium from which they are isolated, plus a single-letter strain designation (as needed) and a roman numeral showing the order in which it was identified. The 3-letter bacterium designation should begin with a capital letter and is italicized the rest of the enzyme name is set roman.


Italics Use with Virus Names

A virus is not a species a virus belongs to a species. Italicize species, genus, and family of a virus when used in a taxonomic sense. Note however, that it is fine to not mention taxonomy of a virus, especially one like dengue or polio that is well known.

Do not italicize a virus name when used generically. If you capitalize a virus name (other than one that has a proper name in it so that you must capitalize it), then you need to italicize it.

bovine kobuviruses, a kobuvirus, kobuviruses, but Kobuvirus spp.

The presence of West Nile virus was confirmed in mosquitoes and dead crows. (AMA Style Guide, p. 758).

Epidemic transmission of West Nile virus (WNV)&hellipprompted aerial application.

The species West Nile virus is a member of the genus Flavivirus.

Family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus, species Rift Valley fever virus

Recent attention has been drawn to Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus, species Sandfly fever Naples virus) in countries&hellip

Acronyms Use with Virus names

It is permissible to use an acronym for a virus (e.g., WNV for West Nile virus), after defining it. However, do not abbreviate a species (including the species West Nile virus). In short, if you do italicize, don&rsquot use an acronym.

Correct: West Nile virus (WNV family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) is transmitted to humans [here the virus is being transmitted, not the species name so West Nile virus is roman type and may be abbreviated].

For viruses that begin with a Greek letter, write it out and close up space between the letter and the rest of the word.

For human coronavirus, use the abbreviation hCoV. Be aware that there is a genus/species named Human coronavirus, which should be abbreviated as H. coronavirus, not hCoV.

For numbered echoviruses (e.g., echovirus 13), use the following format: E13 (do not use EV)

For hepatitis E virus, use the acryonym HEV.

Use a capital H for human virus abbreviations (e.g., HMPV, not hMPV), unless otherwise directed by author or precedent (see human coronavirus above).

For human enterovirus, use human EV, not HEV. For numbered enteroviruses, use the following format: EV75.

For influenza virus, see separate section (i.e., following West Nile virus below).

For polyomaviruses, use the following:

KIPyV for KI polyomaviruses (formerly known as Karolinska Institute polyomavirus)

MCPyV, not MCV, for Merkel cell polyomavirus, and

WUPyV for WU polyomaviruses (formerly known as Washington University polyomavirus).

For West Nile virus, use WNV.


On October 18, 2011, WHO published guidelines for the standardization of terminology of the pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus (see The guidelines are intended to minimize confusion and differentiate the pandemic virus from the old seasonal A (H1N1) viruses circulating in humans before pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus. In agreement with WHO guidelines, EID will use the following nomenclature for the pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus:

influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus

After a first mention of the full virus name, including the word &ldquoinfluenza,&rdquo it is sufficient to use &ldquoA(H1N1)pdm09&rdquo however, the word &ldquovirus,&rdquo &ldquoinfection,&rdquo or &ldquooutbreak&rdquo should be added to the name, as appropriate. If the term appears frequently, the abbreviation &ldquopH1N1&rdquo may be used.

Examples of other influenza virus nomenclature used by EID:

avian influenza A(H7N9) virus

avian influenza A(H5N1) virus

As stated above for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, other influenza virus names can be shortened after a first mention that includes the word &ldquoinfluenza,&rdquo but, as appropriate, the word word &ldquovirus,&rdquo &ldquoinfection,&rdquo or &ldquooutbreak&rdquo should be added to the name. Examples: A(H7N9) virus, A(H7N9) infection, A(H7N9) outbreak.

The H and N subtype should always be in parentheses when it follows &ldquoinfluenza&rdquo:

influenza virus A (H5N1) (for &ldquoinfluenza virus A subtype H5N1&rdquo)

A (H3N2)v (for &ldquovariant influenza A (H3N2)&rdquo)

When used alone, subtypes do not need parentheses but must be accompanied by the word &ldquosubtype.&rdquo

Different subtypes, such as H5N1&hellip

Note: H5N1 is neither a virus, nor a disease it is merely a subtype designation of influenza virus type A. If you want to drop anything later in the article, you may leave out the subtype designation. If only 1 virus is being studied, you can say in the Methods that influenza virus means influenza virus A subtype H5N1, and leave the subtype out from then on.

Influenza virus (H5N1) can have high or low pathogenicity. It is not redundant to include "highly pathogenic" in the title.

For information on this virus nomenclature style, adopted by several international organizations, see International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.

For influenza virus isolates, include the virus subtype, write out in full the host of origin (omit if human), include the site of isolation and strain number, and use the 4-digit year if the virus was isolated in 2000 or later. For viruses isolated during the 1900s, use the 2-digit year.

Italicize genus and species of the host in isolate names.

The formal nomenclature for the designation of influenza viruses was revised and published by the World Health Organization (WHO). (WHO. A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a WHO memorandum. Bull.World Health Organ. 198058585&ndash9). The full and correct nomenclature includes the type of virus (A, B, or C), the host of origin (except for human), the geographic site of isolation, the strain number, the year of isolation (4-digit year for viruses isolated in 2000 or later 2-digit year for viruses isolated during the 1900s), and the subtype (16 possible H and 9 possible N subtypes).

Thus a type A virus isolated in 1995 from a Mallard duck in Memphis Tennessee with a strain number of 123 and an H5N1 subtype is designated:

Influenza A/mallard/Memphis/123/95 (H5N1).

Site can be abbreviated in human viruses, as in the following for which PR (Puerto Rico) and FM (Fort Monmouth) are well known and not written out.

Influenza viruses used were A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/FM/1/47 (H1N1), and
A/Thailand/SP-83/2004 (H5N1).

When referring to avian influenza viruses that have low pathogenicity, use the term &ldquolow pathogenicity avian influenza&rdquo not &ldquolow pathogenic avian influenza.&rdquo If used 3 or more times, the term can be abbreviated as LPAI.

When referring to avian influenza viruses that have high pathogenicity, use the term &ldquohighly pathogenic avian influenza&rdquo not &ldquohigh pathogenicity avian influenza.&rdquo If used &ge3 times, the term can be abbreviated as HPAI.

Eukaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic cells are more advanced cells. These cells are found in plants, animals, and protists (small unicellular "animalcules").

The eukaryotic cell is composed of 4 main parts:

cell membrane - outer boundary of the cell

cytoplasm - jelly-like fluid interior of the cell

nucleus - the "control center" of the cell, contains the cell's DNA (chromosomes)

organelles - "little organs" that carry out cell functions

List of culture media used in microbiology with their uses

What would be the preferential culture media(um) for initial isolation of Corynebacterium Pseudotuberculosis from a pus specimen aspirated from an ovine superficial lymph node abscess ?

Is there a reason to use McConkey’s agar over Eosin Methylene Blue agar?

Where are
R2A agar, GP2 Agar, Bushnell Hass Medium etc .

Hugh leifson oxidation fermentation media with bromothymol blue indicator

This is one of the best educative site I’ve ever seen, I had to save it on my home screen, I’m a doctor of pharmacy(PHARM.D) student, and with this, PMB has been all rossy, thanks a million and keep it up.

This note provides an impressive coverage of media that can be used for the detection and isolation of many important pathogens from all forms of samples. Its just adequate for postgraduate students of food, medical and environmental microbiology.

Please send me the “List of culture media used in microbiology with their uses”

hi, you can easily get d shape of a bacterium grow on culture media by observing under d microscope using its colonies. the only characteristics that u can get from the culture medium are things like, colour, texture (rough, dry, smooth colonies….) e.t.c

I would like to ask if maybe you know a special and also an economic culture media for the isolation of Hg-resistant bacteria?

Easy Peasy All-in-One High School

Found a problem? Check here.

Prerequisite: Middle school biology and chemistry

Recommended: 9th or 10th

Test Prep: CLEP Biology This course covers the basic material for this exam, but this is considered a very hard test, and I would suspect more will need to be studied to learn everything required for this huge exam. It’s worth the same as two college courses, which is why it covers so much.

Course Description: This course is based on Georgia Virtual Learning’s High School Biology courses, though it pulls in other resources throughout. This curriculum includes topics such as the scientific method, cells, biochemistry, photosynthesis and respiration, mitosis and meiosis, DNA and RNA, genetics, ecology, evolution and creation, taxonomy, viruses and bacteria, protists and fungi, and finally animals. Students will learn through texts, videos, online interactives and through hands-on and virtual lab investigations. (GVL course pages are linked as sources for the pages I copied their information from. They are all edited to some degree. All of the crossword puzzles are made from the GVL material as well as study questions and key term sheets.) And a thank you to Holly Dunn and Liz Mogg for all their help with preparing this course.

Notes: I believe in a literal six-day creation of the world by our holy, loving, almighty, creative God. This will be discussed in the beginning of the course to give the framework for how evolution will be approached. Natural selection is taught as it corresponds with Biblical truth but not beyond that. Students will gain some understanding of secular evolutionary thought and come away strengthened in their faith. Many of the materials mention “millions of years,” and I can’t get away from that, but the students will not be required to take any of that as fact. There is no test on evolution instead, students finish that chapter by presenting their beliefs about creation and evolution.

Welcome to your first day of school! I wanted to give you one important reminder before you begin. Many of your lessons below have an internet link for you to click on. When you go to the different internet pages for your lessons, please DO NOT click on anything else on that page except what the directions tell you to. DO NOT click on any advertisements or games. DO NOT click on anything that takes you to a different website. Just stay focused on your lesson and then close that window and you should be right back here for the next lesson. Okay?

  1. If you didn’t get here through My EP Assignments, I suggest you go there and create an account.
  2. (*)Print out your First Quarter Grading sheet or use the Excel version.
  3. Keep in mind that your success in Biology will be directly proportional to the amount of effort you invest. You should complete every activity assigned to strengthen your understanding of each concept.
  4. Expectations
    • Put forth your best effort. Be responsible for your own learning.
    • Read directions carefully.
    • Believe in your abilities. Confidence is half the battle.
    • Read all text and supplementary materials as assigned.
    • Try, and then try again.
    • Complete all assignments as assigned.
    • Ask Questions!
    • Practice. Practice. Practice.
  5. Safety Laboratory – safety is important! Although many labs are online, students will be conducting some labs at home. All students are encouraged to wear protective equipment at all times while conducting labs.
  6. Assignments
    • Save all your work to your hard drive or disk and also save it in another location (i.e., a disk or flash drive).
    • Sometimes things can happen to your computer, and it may be necessary for you to prove that you have completed all assignments.
    • Cheating and plagiarism is lying and stealing.

What is Biology?

  1. Read over the key terms. You don’t need to learn all of these terms now. Use this to refresh your memory about what you’ve learned previously.
  2. This is your answer key for the course.
  3. This is the end of your work for this course for your first day. You are allowed to move at your own pace (this is homeschooling), but it’s intended you complete one lesson a day.
  1. Learn about the terminology of biology. This chart shows how the words used in biology are formed. They have meanings.
  2. Read about the “Study of Life.”
  3. Over the next few days you will look more closely at the characteristics of life. For today, think about what you already know about living and non-living things. Even if you have never taken a biology course before, you know some characteristics/attributes that living things have in common. Make a list of what living things have in common. What makes something alive?
  4. Then write at least three characteristics of living things with descriptions and examples as shown in the example below.
    • Characteristic: the need to be able to obtain and use energy
    • Description: If something is alive, it needs a source of energy.
    • Example: Plants get their energy from the sun. Animals eat plants or other animals. Mushrooms feed on decaying organic material. (source)
  5. Record your score out of 10. Take off one point for each incomplete section of the assignment. There are nine things you should have written.

Lesson 3* (Note that an asterisk * indicates that there is a worksheet on this lesson)

  1. *Print the outline (source) , or just create your own.
  2. Take notes in an outline form.
    • The title is Characteristics of Life.
    • Then you will write “I. All living things are made with one or more cells.”
    • Then you would indent and write A., B. etc., with some information.
  3. Read about three characteristics of life.
    • All living things are made with one or more cells.
      • Watch the short video on how living things are made up of cells.
      • Read about examples of single-cell organisms.
    • All living things must be able to obtain and use energy.
      • Plants use the process of photosynthesis to get energy. Cell organelles called chloroplasts convert the sun’s energy into usable energy for the plant.
      • Animals have organelles called mitochondria, which carry out a chemical reaction which turns the food we eat into energy during digestion when the food is broken down. The energy is used by our cells to keep us going.
    • All living things react to a stimulus.
      • Watch the Seed to Flower video.
      • How do you react to stimuli?
        • Do you jump when you hear a loud noise?
        • Do you squint when a light is bright?
        • Do you react to smells?
  1. Continue your outline. If you printed out an outline, turn it over and write your own on the back for the next three characteristics.
    • All living things reproduce.
      • asexually
        • The most common form of asexual reproduction is when bacteria and other single-cell organisms divide themselves into two identical cells. They reproduce by dividing. It can happen as quickly as every thirty minutes.
      • sexually
        • Reproduction sexually is the combining and multiplying of cells, instead of the dividing of them. This most commonly happens when male and female single cells combine and then multiply.
        • Some animals can only reproduce every couple of years. Others, like mice, can reproduce every month. Some have one baby at a time, while others, like the toad, can have thousands at once.
    • All living things grow, develop and die.
      • Every organism has a life cycle, a beginning and an end.
      • Every organism deteriorates and breaks down eventually.
      • Every living thing comes to a point when its cells can no longer do what they must in order to survive.
    • All living things maintain homeostasis.
      • Watch this short video for an overview of the role of homeostasis in the body.
      • Homeostasis happens throughout our bodies. It controls…
        • heart rate
        • respiration rate
        • amount of waste products in the blood
        • the amount of water in the body
        • body temp
  1. Read over this list and descriptions of the characteristics of living things. (Just read the top of the page. There’s a list of 7 things. Stop at 2. What is Matter?)
  2. How does this compare to what you’ve learned?
  3. Pretend you’ve discovered something you think is alive. Present it to the scientific community (your family) and give at least twelve points of evidence that it is biotic, using at least six characteristics of life you’ve just learned about. (Read the grading guide below to make sure you do what you are supposed to do.)
  4. Record your grade out of 30 for completing this assignment. This is meant to be an oral presentation, but you can request to do it in writing as well.
    • Score up to 5 points for each of six characteristics. State the characteristic and two ways your specimen exhibits that characteristic.
  1. Is it biotic or abiotic? Biotic means living and abiotic means non-living. However, biotic things that are now dead can be considered both biotic and abiotic. It becomes not so straightforward at that point.
  2. Read from “What is Biology?” (ck12) (You don’t need to use the links in the reading. I will be linking separately to materials that you should use. This site may require you to log in. If you don’t have one, please create an account.)
  3. Answer questions 1-4.
  4. Check your answers. All answers can be found on the answer pages linked on Lesson 1.
  5. Record your score out of 4.
  1. Watch this video on evolution and natural selection. When you read about evolution, think about it in terms of natural selection. As a Christian who believes that the earth was created in six days by God, I do believe in natural selection. Of course I do. It exists today. It’s something that we can observe happening. I don’t accept that somehow these small changes within species somehow over “eons and eons” made species jump and transform into entirely different species. There has never been any observable evidence of that happening. The scientists who believe in that (and not all do) take it on faith that that’s how all of the many species came to be. I would rather have faith in God. It makes much more sense that 10 million species came to be because they were created by a creative God than to say that those (possibly over 30 million) species developed simply because they survived best in each ecosystem. If that were the case, don’t you think there would be way fewer species out there if it were really about developing into what survived best in that environment?
  2. Read the story of creation. The video won’t play. You have to read the page and click on “Next” until you get to the section on the “Fall.”
  3. Complete the quiz.
  4. Check your answers.
  5. Record your score out of 8.

Lesson 9 (Materials Needed)

  1. Read through the organization of life terms.
  2. Read over the safety information.
  3. Complete the lab, “Do Sugar Crystals Grow.” Read and follow the directions!
  4. Thinking about biotic and abiotic…Did the sugar grow? How did it grow? Did it reproduce? When it stopped growing, did it die?
  5. Score 10 points for completing the experiment and 5 points for answering the questions.
  6. Record your score out of 15.
  1. Look over your notes from this unit on the characteristics of life.
  2. Complete the crossword puzzle for review as well.
  3. *Take this quiz to see what you remember about your introduction to biology. Always hold onto things like this because they make excellent review materials for later tests and exams.
  4. Check your answers. They just have to be the right idea, not the exact words.
  5. Record your score out of 7.

Scientific Method

  1. *Fill in the blanks on the note page. Use this page on experiments and the internet.
  2. Record 6 points for completing each blank on the page. Take off one point for each incomplete blank.
  3. Save this sheet for studying!
  4. Write a brief paragraph on how you have used or could use the scientific method to solve a problem.
  5. Record 5 points for completing the paragraph.
  1. Read and answer questions three and five about Science and the Natural World. The beginning is review, so you can skim that material.
    • You don’t need to use the links on the page, but if the video is working, you can watch it or part of it.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your score out of 4, up to two points for each question.
  4. Do numbers 1-5 on the “Identifying Variable” assignment.
    • The independent variable is the one being tested. It’s the manipulated variable. They are changing it.
    • The controlled variables are kept the same each time.
    • The dependent variable depends on the independent variable. It’s the outcome it’s what responds to the change in the independent variable.
  5. Check your answers.
  6. Record your score out of 10.
  1. Complete this assignment on developing a controlled experiment.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your score out of 20. 1 point for each answer + 4 points for the graph if it is labeled and complete. Take off one point for any missing answer.
  1. Answer the “What is the Scientific Method?” questions using “Test Yourself.” If you don’t get them all right, then use the video lesson.
  2. Record 5 points for completion, if you completed the assignment.
  1. Review the metric system. Look it over and try to fill in the blanks.
  2. Watch the videos on the metric system.
  3. This page has 6 simple questions on it in two sets. Answer them.
  4. Record up to 15 points. (There were 16 questions today, 10 in step 1 and 6 in step 3. You can get a perfect score with one wrong.)
  1. Watch the scientific method video.
  2. Review the chapter on scientific investigation by answering the questions. Just answer in your head, and then click or highlight to see the answers.
  3. Record 5 points for completion, if you completed the assignment.
  1. Match the terms and definitions.
  2. Complete the vocabulary crossword puzzle.
  3. Read about the “Organization of Life.”
  4. Record 5 points for completion.
  1. There are limits to science.
  2. It is said that scientists start from two basic assumptions: that the world is explainable and understandable, and that our understanding must be based on what is truthfully perceived and observed. As a Christian I can see how the world having a Creator makes things explainable and understandable. No one except God saw what happened long ago. The Bible is the only record we have of what happened. The Bible is an extremely accurate history book. The scientists who say we must observe in order to know have never, ever observed one species evolving into another, in any way, shape, or form. It’s not “real” science. I wasn’t there to observe the world’s creation, but God was, and we have His record of it.
  3. Write two questions that can be answered by science and two questions that can’t.
  4. Record 5 points for completion.
  1. Remind yourself about the hierarchy of life.
  2. Order these: cells, organelles, atoms, molecules, tissues, organ systems, population, organs, organisms, communities.
    • Check your answer.
  3. Read the Structure Fits Function assignment (source) . (You can complete this on Lesson 20.) Here’s some help in understanding how structure determines the function.
  1. Complete the Structure Fits Function assignment. You can do additional research to answer the questions.
  2. Look over the answers on the answer pages.
  3. Record a score of 20. Take off a point for any incomplete or just plain wrong answers.
  4. Review all of your notes and quizzes from the course so far.
  5. Take the scientific method quiz.
  6. Record your score out of 10.
    Read and answer review questions one through three.
  1. Check your answers.
  2. Record your score out of 3.
  1. *Print out these note pages on cells. Fill in the blanks where info is missing as you read and watch the videos.
  2. Read about cells and watch the video. this guy talk really fast about this stuff.
  1. Continue filling in your notes from the information on this page on cell organelles.
  2. Click around and learn about cell structure. You can use this to help you if you are still filling in blanks.
  1. Take the quiz on Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. (4 questions, 8 points)
  2. Take the quiz on cell organelles. (10 questions, 20 points)
  3. Record your score out of 28.
    • If you missed any, you can regain those points by answering any of these cell test questions correctly. (If you missed one above, that ended up being 2 points off your total. Here one correct answer is one point.)

Lesson 25(*) (Materials: vinegar, eggs, corn syrup/salt/other)

  1. Look at this lab report template.
  2. (*)Start Osmosis Lab.
    NOTE: You will be using 4 eggs for this experiment. Read through the whole lab first. All 4 eggs will go through the vinegar step (Step 1) together. And then you will divide those 4 eggs for Step 2. Two of the post-vinegar eggs will go in water, and the other two will go in your solution.
  3. Write a lab report according to the template. (You can only do the first parts of this today.)
  1. Finish your lab and report.
  2. Score your lab report according to this rubric.
  3. Record your score out of 20.
  4. What happened? Water was traveling through the membrane. Life seeks balance. The process is called homeostasis. The water left the cell, the egg, through the membrane and went into the syrup that didn’t have any water. You can soak an egg in water. What will happen? Why?
  1. If necessary, review cells one more time!
  2. Take the quiz.
  3. Record your score out of 10. (There are 11 questions. That means you can miss one and still get 10 points.)
  4. Complete this cell project. You can use any websites/notes necessary.
  5. Score your cell project out of 20. Take off a point for any missing pieces or any obviously wrong answers.
  6. Record your score out of 20.
  7. Hold onto your project!
  1. Explain to someone why you chose the jobs you did on your cell project. Present your project.
  2. Score up to 10 points for confident, clear explanations.
  3. Record your score out of 10.
  4. Read about diffusion and answer the first 2 review questions. You can also answer the 3rd question for extra credit.
  5. Check your answers.
  6. Record your score out of 2. Give yourself 1 extra credit point if you correctly answered the 3rd question.
  1. Here is an explanation of how osmosis works.
  2. Have someone open the vinegar bottle a couple of feet away from you. Count how many breaths you take before you smell it. That’s showing you the time it takes for the vinegar to diffuse through the air.
  3. Watch this video of an osmosis experiment.
  4. Answer the mystery questions. (source)
    • Note for #6: Starch molecules are too big to cross the dialysis bag membrane.
  5. Check your answers.
  6. Record your score out of 15. There are fifteen questions. Some are combined under one number.
  1. (*)Answer the questions about osmosis for review.
    • Use the links as necessary to find the answers.
  2. What egg solution was hypertonic and which was hypotonic?
  1. Use the homeostasis and cell transport flashcards and/or activities.
  2. Review all of your notes and materials from this chapter on cells. You could also review by exploring inside a cell.
  1. Take the homeostasis and cell transport test.
  2. Record your score out of 25. The 5 written answer questions are worth 2 points each. 1 point each for the rest of the questions.
  3. Watch “The Inner Life of a Cell.” Can you recognize any parts of a cell and their functions?


  1. Read about water and pH. You’ll be answering questions about this tomorrow.
  2. Use these two applets to look at water bonded into a droplet and a piece of ice. Make observations. What’s different about the liquid and ice models?
  3. If you need help with acids and bases, here’s a link to talk you through it.
  1. Answer the questions. Refer to yesterday’s reading assignment to answer these.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your score out of 25 (potential for extra credit).
  1. Explore molecules. You don’t have to understand everything going on in all of these. What can you observe?
  2. Build two molecules. Use what you can find (things like toothpicks, pretzels, stirrers, straws, marshmallows, soft candies, and cotton balls) to build either a molecule of water or a molecule of salt and either glucose or vitamin C.
  1. Write 15 items (half base, half acid). Write their name, their pH, and make sure they are labeled as either acid or base.
    • You can use this pH scale picture (or search for your own).
    • Record your score out of 15.
  1. *Read about macromolecules and carbohydrates and take notes according to this graphic organizer.
  2. Then go to this link and read more on carbohydrates and look at their structure and makeup. (Here’s an explanation for younger students. Don’t feel bad about looking up things on kid sites to get a general idea before you tackle harder material. It can be a smart practice.)
  3. Follow the arrows on the chart. (alternate link) Where do macromolecules come from?
  1. Read about lipids. Don’t forget to take notes on your graphic organizer (printed on Lesson 41).
  2. Now read this page on lipids. (site for younger students)
  1. Read about proteins and enzymes. Don’t forget to take notes.
  2. Read about proteins. (site for younger students)
  3. Then read about enzymes.
  1. Read about nucleic acids. Don’t forget to take notes on your graphic organizer (printed on Lesson 41).
  2. Watch the video on the chemical structure of nucleic acids.
  3. Then read this page on nucleic acids for younger students.
  4. Answer the questions on macromolecules.
  5. Check your answers to the questions.
  6. Score 10 points for correctly answering the questions on macromolecules. Take off one point for any answer you didn’t find.
  7. Record your score out of 10.
  8. Score up to 20 points for completing the graphic organizer (from Lesson 41). There are 5 parts to complete each for carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Take off a point for any block you missed.
  9. Record your score out of 20.
  1. (*)Print out the lab worksheets. (The link on the PDF is outdated. Use the link given in step 2 here for the lab.)
  2. Complete the four labs, starting by clicking on carbohydrates. Fill out the worksheets as you go.
  3. Record the steps AS you go through the labs.
  4. Score up to 12 points for completing the 12 blank sections. Take off a point for any missing part of your answer.
  5. Record your score out of 12.

This is the end of the first quarter. If you are using a paper grading sheet, divide your total score by the total possible. It should be less than 1 (unless you have a perfect or better than perfect score). Multiply your result by 100 (just ignore decimals). That’s your grade percentage (e.g., 87%). Your goal is 90% or better. Place your graded work and labs in a safe place to be included in your portfolio.

Grading scale: 90-100 is an A, 80-89 is a B, 70-79 is a C, 60-69 is a D, < 60 is an F

  1. Choose one property of water and describe what would happen if water didn’t have that property. Write a paragraph. (Make sure you know what cohesion is.)
  2. Record 5 points for a paragraph that completes the assignment.
  3. Review cells.
  4. Review biochemistry. This is for review. You don’t need to use this page to learn new things, unless you want to!
  1. Read about bonds. can have how many bonds?
  2. You may not know all of the answers on this quiz. I didn’t write it, but I have scored it accordingly, so don’t get upset. If you do know all the answers, you will get bonus points, but you can get a perfect score even if you miss some of them.
  3. Take this quiz. Record your score out of 6. If you finish, you will have gotten them all correct.
  4. Define: polarity, cohesion, solvent, organic compounds.
  5. Check your answers.
  6. Score your definitions, up to 2 points for each definition.
  7. Record your score out of 8.
  1. Study your note pages from these three chapters we’ve completed so far. You should also use these vocabulary flashcards to study for a test tomorrow. You can use the flashcards or any of the other activities.
  1. When you are ready, write the definitions of the terms on this test. You may not use notes when you are taking this test. You do not have to get the exact words that are in the answers, but you need to get the meaning correct.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Score up to 2 points for each answer. (This leaves room for getting one point for a partially correct answer.)
  4. Record your score out of 24.

Photosynthesis and Respiration

  1. *Print out the notes for this chapter. What’s familiar? What’s foreign?
  2. Learn about photosynthesis.
  3. Read the top paragraph and stop after the picture near the top of the page showing photosynthesis. Look at the equation. What does it say? Read it in English. 6H2O would read, “Six water molecules.”
  4. Complete the photosynthesis interactive.
  5. Score 5 points for completing each section.
  6. Record your score out of 20.
  1. Go through the cellular respiration and energy page.
  2. *Take your time. Take notes. You won’t be filling this out all today.
  3. Here are some videos on ATP: onetwothree.
  1. Go through the page on aerobic cellular respiration.
  2. Use your pages from Lesson 52 to take notes.
  3. The do the same with anaerobic cellular respiration.
  4. Finish your notes for this section.
  5. Record up to 35 points for completion. (The numbering repeats at the end of the notes.)
  1. Go through this lesson on cellular respiration.
  2. Go through this page on cellular respiration and then answer the questions at the bottom. You won’t just find all the answers directly on the page.
  3. Check your answers.
  4. Record your score out of 8 (one point each).
  1. *Print out your note-taking guide.
  2. Read about chloroplasts. Take notes.
  3. Try the Pearson Pigment Lab I. (This is archived and SLOW to load. Be patient. On the page with the picture of a test tube with a green line at the bottom. Be patient. The colors will start to rise up and separate.)
  4. The last part of the lab activity is a quiz. Don’t click to check your answers. Check them here. (answers: a, b, c )
  5. Score up to 10 points for completing each step of the lab. You can add a point for each correct quiz answer.
  6. Record your score out of 10. (Potential for extra credit)
  1. Read about photosynthesis and watch the videos.
  2. Continue to fill out the note pages from Lesson 55.
  3. Watch the video on the limiting factors of photosynthesis.
  1. Use the photosynthesis interactive. Read the descriptors next to the pictures. You can click on the images to see them bigger.
  2. When you get to the equation for photosynthesis, write it down. Read it as an English sentence. Explain to someone what it says.
  3. Then read the puzzlers. What do you think? Scroll down to see varying responses.
  4. Listen to this guy talk fast about photosynthesis.
  1. Watch this video on what’s going on inside a cell and how it obtains energy.
  2. Listen to this guy talk fast about ATP and cellular respiration.
  3. While you watch these…
    • Draw a diagram of cellular respiration.
    • *Cut and paste and complete the worksheets on cellular energy and photosynthesis.
  4. Act out (somehow) cellular energy and photosynthesis. Use people, props, puppets, whatever.
  5. Do it for an audience. They should know something by the time you are done!
  6. Record up to 10 points for completing today’s assignment.
  1. Review and complete the review questions, Light-Reactions-of-Photosynthesis. You don’t have to do the practice section.
  2. Review and complete the review questions, Chloroplasts. You don’t have to do the practice section.
  3. Check your answers.
  4. Record your score out of 6.
  5. Answer the questions as you watch the video, The Powerhouse of the Cell. Read them before you start the video!
  1. Complete the crossword puzzle.
  2. Record up to 8 points for eight correct answers in the crossword puzzle.
  3. Write a poem or song about photosynthesis or cellular respiration for extra credit. Record 5 points for acceptable completion after your song or poem has been performed before an audience.
  1. *Complete the study guide. Can you do it without your notes?
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Score up to 28 points for 14 well-answered questions. Score up to 2 points for not using your notes.
  4. Record your score out of 28. (potential for extra credit)
  1. Answer the questions. You can use your notes or the links in the course as necessary.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Score 1 point for each of the 19 questions.
  4. Record your score out of 19.
    for the test.
    • Read the list or use the flashcards.
    • Use the learn, scatter and space race buttons until you know the answers.
  1. When you are ready, take the test.
  2. Record your score out of 20.

Mitosis and Meiosis

  1. Read about and answer review questions on Asexual and Sexual Reproduction.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your score out of 4.
  4. How do these animals reproduce?
  1. Read about mitosis and watch the video.
  2. I won’t require this, but I want you to do this. Make your own mitosis flip book. I would encourage this. Make the book and give it to someone to flip through. Explain what’s happening to them. Even if you don’t make the book, describe mitosis to someone.
  1. Read about DNA. Keep clicking on “next.” Don’t worry about the mitosis animation. You’ve seen it before. Answer the problem questions.
  1. *Complete this Mitosis Timeline Virtual Lab. (The link to the image just shows the image in the directions.)
    • Go through the beginning of this to help you get started.
  2. Record your score out of 50.
  1. *Answer the questions. You can use the links in the course and the internet if necessary.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record up to 23 points for answering 23 questions correctly. Potential for an extra credit point.
  1. *Print the questions and answer them without using your notes.
  2. Now, you can use your notes for anything you couldn’t answer.
  3. Check your answers.
  4. Score 2 points for every question you got right on your own. Score 1 point for every question you had to use your notes for.
  5. Record your score out of 24. (potential for extra credit)
  1. Read through the list of characteristics.
  2. Go through the review with as much detail as you need to. Answer the questions at the end. Keep clicking on “next.”
  3. There will be quizzes on Lesson 77 on mitosis and meiosis. You can review your notes.


  1. *Print out your vocabulary notes for the next chapter on DNA and RNA and read them over.
  2. Go through the DNA notes. You don’t have to take the quiz. Just keep moving through. This is an introduction to what we’ll be covering in this unit.
  1. *Fill in these notes as you use the video on the DNA/RNA page below.
  2. Go through the page on DNA and RNA.
  3. Check out these pages. The first two are short videos. Watch them. The last three are activities. Do at least one.
    • The chemical structure of DNA (launch the resource) (launch the resource)
    • How to extract your DNA
    • How to extract DNA from anything
    • (*)Origami DNA
  1. Go through the page on DNA replication.
  2. Go through the DNA replication interactive. This loads very slowly. You can also find a smaller version on this page scroll down and click on Play.
  3. Watch the video on the history of the double helix discovery.
  1. *Print the DNA workshop questions.
  2. Use the video to answer the questions you just printed.
  3. Check your answers.
  4. Record your score out of 17. (half point each, potential for extra credit)
  1. You are going to use what you have learned about DNA replication, transcription, translation, etc. to complete a DNA lab. Refer back to previous lessons if you need a reminder.
      (That has the Snoopy Snork DNA cut off. This version from Biology Corner shows it all at the bottom.)
  2. Record your score out of 20 for completing the assignment.
  1. Review and complete review questions about RNA.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your grade out of 3.
  4. Complete this RNA activity.
  5. Check your answers. Record up to 10 points for completion.
  6. Hold onto your model. (You could take a picture for your portfolio.)
  1. Answer the study guide questions. You can use the links in the course to help you find the answers.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your score out of 15.
  1. Take the six DNA quizzes. Record your two best scores.
  2. Record your total for the two quizzes out of 20.
  1. (*)Read and answer the questions about molecular biology (source) as best as you can. This is review.
  2. Check your answers at the end of the packet.
    (ANSWER CORRECTION: #4 is D-starch)
  3. Record your score out of 10. (potential for extra credit)
  1. Take the tour of basic genetics. Do each one on the list on the right starting with “What Are Traits?” Work your way down.

This is the end of the second quarter. If you are using a paper grading sheet, divide your total score by the total possible. It should be less than 1 (unless you have a perfect or better than perfect score). Multiply your result by 100. (Just ignore decimals.) That’s your grade percentage (e.g., 87%). Your goal is 90% or better. Place your graded work and labs in a safe place to be included in your portfolio.

Grading scale: 90-100 A, 80-89 B, 70-79 C, 60-69 D, < 60 F

  1. (*)Print the grading sheet for this quarter or use the Excel version.
  2. Watch the presentations in the list under “Introduction to Molecular Genealogy.” You’ll have to click on the next one in the list after the video finishes playing.
  3. Take notes.
  4. (*)Print out your vocabulary for this chapter and read it over.
  1. Play this genetics game. Go through case 1 and 2 on the left page. You don’t have to visit the playground. (From playing around on this I think the longer alleles are dominant. Males have the ruffle under their neck.)
    • *If you can’t play this on your device (try another browser), you could also try this paper activity. DirectionsChromosomes
  1. Do the genetics practice problems. (answers)
  2. Record up to 15 points.
    • Extra credit: Up to 5 points of extra credit for getting up to five of these genetics problems correct.
  3. Complete the cases (at least cases 3 and 4).
    • Here’s an alternative activity that should work on any device if you can’t do that.
  1. Here is a flashcard set if that helps you learn the terms you need to grasp to follow the material in this unit.
  2. Here are several of the terms we’ve been using in plainer language and with examples.
  3. Learn about Punnett Squares and Di-hybrid crosses.
  4. Complete the Punnett Squares practice.
    • If you have trouble with this, try a video.
  5. Check your answers.
  6. Record up to 20 points (1/2 point for each little answer).
  1. Follow the directions and use the tutorial.
  2. Complete the quiz until you have them all correct.
  3. Record up to 10 points. Take off a point for any answer not complete.
  1. Read about complete and incomplete dominance.
  2. Complete the Punnett Square word problems.
  3. Check your answers.
  4. Record your score out of 25. Score a half point for each blank you fill in.
  1. Watch the video on blood types. What does this have to do with what we’re learning?
  2. Read the list of dominant and recessive traits. What about the list surprises you?
  3. Read about other types of inheritance.
  4. Can you answer this question? Click on the tutorial button if you need help.

Lesson 99* (Materials: Marshmallows large and mini, toothpicks, candies, OR , create/use your own materials. Add your choices to the decoder page.)

  1. *Complete the Reebop Genetics Lab.
  2. Record up to 24 points. Score up to 1 point for each block filled in and 2 points for each of the six questions answered.
  1. Read about pedigrees.
  2. You can read more about genetic family trees here. (Don’t click on anything.)
  3. Read about genetic disorders.
  1. Read about genetic engineering.
  2. Should scientists be allowed to continue with genetic engineering? Answer with a paragraph or have a discussion with your parents. Make sure you explain the “why” of it. Can you argue both sides of the debate?
  3. Here are some articles for reading/thinking about genetic engineering from a Christian perspective.
  1. Do the crossword puzzle.
  2. Genetics ethics: what do you think? Answer the questions. You could do these as a discussion with parents instead of writing out answers if you all so choose.
  1. Complete the Cats Genetics Lab.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your score up to 24 points.
  4. There are two quizzes on Lesson 104. Now would be a good time to read over the vocabulary notes from this chapter.
  1. Use your notes or anything from this chapter to review. Make sure you know your Punnett squares.
  2. When you are ready, put away your notes and close everything else and take your quizzes. (You only get 1 point per question.)
  3. Record your score out of 15. (potential for one extra credit point)
  1. *Print out and read over the ecology key terms for this chapter on ecology.
  2. Read over the project guidelines. You will be choosing an endangered species to learn about. Be creative. You don’t have to make something on the computer.
    • Here are some online project maker ideas, but you don’t have to do it online, and you don’t have to use one of these. , Prezi, Emaze, Piktochart, Animoto
  3. This project is due on Lesson 120.
  4. You can start exploring to be thinking about what animal you want to choose.
    • Here are some sites about endangered animals. You don’t have to pick one from this list.
    • Here’s a link to help you write your bibliography.
  1. *Print the biosphere study guide. Complete it as you read.
  2. Read about ecology and the biosphere.
  3. Review biotic and abiotic factors.
  4. Read “What’s in a name?“
  1. *Print out this chart to take notes on the world’s major biomes.
  2. Fill in the chart about terrestial biomes which mainly mark different areas of climate.
  3. Record up to 28 points. Take off a point for any empty box.
  4. Take a look at the locations for the major terrestrial biomes. Which biome do you live in?
  1. Go through the page on energy flow.
  2. There is a video on the page about wolves. I remember having heard complaints from locals about the wolves, so searched and found this article. Wolves were eating their calves in their herds of cattle. Remember, there are always two sides to a story, and often, unexpected consequences.
  3. *See if you can fill in the blank.
  4. Check your answers.
  5. Record up to 10 points for correctly filling in the blanks.
  6. Have you chosen your animal? You should be learning about it. Make sure to keep track of your sources. (Your directions on Lesson 105.)
  1. Read about symbiosis. There are a bunch of videos at the bottom of the page. Make sure to watch them.
  2. Tell someone an example of each time of symbiotic relationship.
  3. Take a look at these:
  4. ravens intelligence, ability to learn
  5. Learn about your endangered animal. Take organized notes! How are you going to present your information? Be thinking.
  1. Do you know the terms? Try a game or use the flashcards.
  2. Explain to someone how deep sea plants can get energy without sunlight.
  3. You can work on your project any day without me telling you. It’s due on Lesson 120.
  1. Try making food chains. Choose Free Play and make two working food chains.
  2. Record up to 10 points for completion.
  3. Can you make a food web that survives? Click on “Open Simulator.”
  4. Record up to 12 points for succeeding in keeping all the animals alive. (If you really can’t get them all to live, take off 2 points for each animal you can’t keep alive.)
  5. Work on your project. (Directions are on Lesson 105.)
  1. Learn about food webs in the ocean.
  2. Here’s a video on how warmer water affects food chains.
  3. *(Only page 4 is necessary) Complete the chart on page four labeling the ocean life as producer, consumer, or decomposer. Then create a food chain. (You can print and use the pictures if you like, or just write or draw them.) Then write answers for the scenarios on page three. What do you think would be affected?
  4. Record up to 12 points. Score up to 6 points for completing the table and 6 points for answering the three scenarios.
  1. Watch/Read the following. Write a sentence after each summarizing the info or telling what you think is the most significant aspect.
    • Read about intertidal communities. Or watch a video.
    • Watch the video on food webs in the coral reef.
    • Read about Antarctic ecosystems.
    • Record out of 6 points, up to 2 points for each complete, informative sentence.
  2. Put together a food web.
  3. See the world. Can you identify the biomes?
  1. Learn about the recycling of matter. Use the links on the page and answer the two questions at the bottom of the page in writing.
  2. Write/draw a description of each cycle or describe them to someone: hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen.
  3. How does the flow of matter differ from the flow of energy through an ecosystem?
  1. Watch the videos on community ecology.
  2. Read about community ecology.
  3. What’s happening each year to the moose and wolf population? Why? Write a sentence or tell someone about each year.
  1. Watch the video on ecological succession.
  2. Read about succession.
  3. How does destruction lead to diversity? Here’s a similar presentation of succession after a fire as a video of where this is taking place if you want to see the real thing instead of a cartoon.
  4. Watch the first minute of this video to see it in action.
  5. Learn about invasive species.
    • What’s the problem with invasive species? How does that relate to community ecology and succession?
  1. Read about the impact of humans. Here’s another article.
  2. Write a paragraph (or discuss with a parent) the conclusions of the articles. What do you think of overpopulation? Do you think anything should be done? (You can read my opinion below.)
  3. Personally, I have a problem with the word, “overpopulation.” It means there are too many people. Who decides what number is too many? God gave humans dominion over the Earth. We were in charge and we’ve messed up. We haven’t been good stewards with what God gave us. Christians should be environmentalists. This is God’s creation and we should be taking care of it. HOWEVER, many who call themselves environmentalists put the Earth and animals before humans. They think it’s okay to kill babies through abortion because it will help the Earth! Christians always value human life above any other thing. I don’t think the problem is too many people. It’s selfishness and greed, basically sin, that is destroying the Earth. The good news is that God is going to create a new Earth for us one day.
  4. Record 5 points for your paragraph/discussion.
  5. Project…
  1. Complete the crossword puzzle. You can research if you need help.
  2. Today would be a good day to finish your project! (Lesson 105, directions)
  1. Finish your project. Make sure you are complete and ready to be graded using the criteria given.
  2. Present your project to an audience, or at least to someone.
  3. Score your project. Where it says 10%, that’s 10 points. 5% is 5 points, etc.
  4. Divide your score in half.
  5. Record your score out of 50.
  6. Review your notes/study guide.
  7. Take the population quiz.
  8. Record your score out of 8. (potential for extra credit)
  1. Complete the population lab using this link. If you can’t use the flash activity, you can watch the lab and pause it to record the data.
  2. Score your assignment based on the rubric in the lab.
  3. Record your score out of 38.
  1. The game mentions the Earth getting warmer because of an increase in carbon emissions. This is referred to as global warming. Read this page and use the links to learn more. No matter what you believe about it, you should know about it. (If the page says it’s being updated, then use this link to an archived page.)
  2. You can read about global warming impact here. (Lesson in propaganda: pay attention to “if,” “could,” “possibly” and such words and phrases pointing to the fact that these aren’t facts, but speculations.)
  3. I put this video in Oceanography as well, but if you haven’t seen it, I suggest you watch it, or at least part of it. It’s a video of scientists saying that global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions is not a reality it is just a political tool.
  4. Remember, scientists don’t always agree. There are LOTS of things scientists disagree about. Never let anyone make you feel stupid for believing differently than they do.
    • Always be prepared to think for yourself. The book, More than a Carpenter, was written by a skeptic. He thought he would prove Christianity false but wound up proving it true and becoming a Christian himself. “McDowell always believed that Christians were ‘out of their minds’ but now insists that ‘never has an individual been called upon to commit intellectual suicide in trusting Christ as Savior and Lord.'” (from Being a Christian doesn’t mean denying science or history it means understanding history and science in a way that unbelievers never can.
  1. Start your Human Impact and Animal Resiliency Assignment.
  2. Finish it on Lesson 125. You can write about this (include pictures), or create an online presentation. Record your sources. Create a bibliography.
  1. Finish your presentation/report on human impact.
  2. Present it. If you wrote something, read it out loud to others.
  3. Record up to 30 points for completing the assignment.
  1. Explain how acid rain can change an ecosystem.
  2. Because it’s interesting, take this quiz on energy resources. . Learn about renewable energy.
  1. Learn about a North American biome, the prairie. Start with the shortgrass prairie.
  2. Read about it, learn how to play, and then play the game. Use the links to complete the activity.
  3. Write a paragraph telling about the biome.
  4. Then complete the tallgrass prairie in the same way.
  5. Score up to 5 points for a complete paragraph: intro, 3 reasons, conclusion.
  6. Record your score out of 10.
  1. Take the Global Trends Quiz. Check your answers.
  2. There are three sections. The first two focus on population, which I have discussed with you before. They focus on the demand many people put on the planet, but then take note at the correct answer to the first question on the last section, the environmental challenge section. It reminds us that it’s really not a problem of numbers of people.
  3. Solve the world’s problems. You can write this or just tell someone. What would you do to help solve one of the world’s problems, such as declining resources and increased pollution?
  4. Record 5 points for a thoughtful solution.
  1. Complete the study guide.
  2. Use the links on the page to help you.
  3. Record your score out of 15 (1 point each except for the graph).
  4. Review your ecology vocabulary and notes from the chapter.
  1. Do the crossword puzzle. You can use your notes.
  2. There are 37 blanks. Record your score out of 35. (potential for extra credit)
  3. Take the ecology quiz.
  4. Record your score out of 10.
  1. You need to understand the evolutionary hypothesis of how people believe all of the organisms on earth came to be. We will also be reading and looking at some contrary information. If you ever want to explain your position and defend your beliefs, it would be helpful to be able to speak intelligently about evolution.
  2. Read about natural selection and survival of the fittest.
  3. There is such a thing as natural selection and survival of the fittest. The weakest get killed the easiest, the fastest, and so don’t breed as much, if at all, and so there aren’t more like them. Those are best fit to live in a particular environment survive to have babies who are like them, just as God designed genetics to work. We can see it as the hand of God changing a population to help it survive.
  4. Read this article about “Darwin’s Finches.”
  5. Explain to someone about what you read today.
  1. Read this article touting evolution creating a new species. You’ll read that a finch learned a new song. Is a finch still a finch? Yes. Can you ever see these little changes in population turning that finch into a fish? a monkey? a truly different species?
  2. Read about natural selection.
  3. Read about genetics and evolution.
  4. Talk with someone about what you have read.
  1. Read about the history of life according to evolution scientists.
  2. Here’s an article on carbon dating from a creationist scientist.
  3. If you are interested in all this, here are some videos you might like to watch.
  4. What can you explain from what you read today?
  1. I’m going to go ahead and let you take this tour. Pay attention to the number of the different types of animals. You don’t have to click on the “millions of years ago” circles if you don’t want to. That page is the end of the tour.
  2. Which type of animal is the most abundant today? Which is the least? (If you don’t know the answer, go back to the tour!)
  3. Creationists believe that dinosaurs and humans did live at the same time. Leviathan, a creature mentioned in the book of Job in the Bible, seems to be an example of a dinosaur. (I personally also think those stories of knights slaying fire-breathing dragons are examples. I know they are just stories and were exaggerated as they got repeated and passed on, but they did come from somewhere.)
  4. Check out a few adaptations. Remember, these animals and plants didn’t will some sort of change. They just went about their lives as they were created to. God took care of the rest through the way he made genetics to work.
  5. Read about your appendix.
  6. What did you learn today?
  1. Read these pages about bacteria resistance, and this one (don’t worry about the video.)
  2. What do you think can and should be done about bacteria resistance? Write your answers/position.
  3. Record up to 5 points for a well-thought-out answer.

This is the end of the third quarter. If you are using a paper grading sheet, divide your total score by the total possible. It should be less than 1 (unless you have a perfect or better than perfect score). Multiply your result by 100. (Just ignore decimals.) That’s your grade percentage (e.g., 87%). Your goal is 90% or better. Place your graded work and labs in a safe place to be included in your portfolio.

Grading scale: 90-100 A, 80-89 B, 70-79 C, 60-69 D, < 60 F

  1. (*)Print out your next grading sheet or use the Excel version.
  2. Watch the video: All Life Systems Were Created by God. (alternate video link)
  3. Read and watch videos about:
      (alternate video link) (no video) (no video) (alternate video link) (alternate video link)
    1. Write out and present to an audience a well-thought-out explanation of your beliefs about creation and evolution. Try to be persuasive.
    1. Go over your vocabulary from each unit.
    2. Why not go back over your vocabulary pages from all of the chapters? Each of the units had one of these sheets. There will be a final exam where you will need to know a bit of everything. Refresh your memory.
    1. Read about taxonomy. Do the review activity linked at the bottom of the page.
    2. Read about domains.
    3. Read about kingdoms.
    4. Read about the kingdoms here as well.
    1. Use the tabs along the top to learn and practice the 3 domains and 6 kingdoms. You can use the flashcards, the learn tab, the games, etc. If you are feeling smart, try the speller tab!
    2. Take the test. (Each is worth half a point. Divide your total in half.)
    3. Record your score out of 10.
    1. Read the introduction and launch the activity. How close did you come to correctly classifying the organisms?
    2. Choose your best organism and remember your score for it, up to 7 points. . Retry until you survive. (This is a Flash activity. If you can’t do it, then describe the features of a fish and what habitat it would survive in and why.)
    3. Score 5 points for successful completion.
    4. What factors were important in your survival? . Successfully complete at least one bird (meaning your bird survives).
    5. Score 5 points for succession completion.
    6. What factors were important for your survival?
    7. Record today’s combined score out of 17.
    1. *Print out this dichotomous key worksheet.
    2. Use these images to do the activity. Take one candy and compare it with the first two descriptions. Follow the directions as to which descriptions to go to next. Choose each time which description fits BEST and continue to follow the directions until you have found the “scientific” name for the candy.
        (Hint: This is flat in your key.)
    3. Complete the worksheet.
    4. Check your answers.
    5. Score up to 10 points for correctly naming 7 candies and a half a point for each correct answer for the 6 questions at the bottom of the page.
    6. Record your score out of 10.
    1. Use this dichotomous key to identify a tree in your yard or neighborhood (or just use this tree.) You can go back during the quiz and change an answer if you don’t think you answered something correctly.
    2. (*)Use this dichotomous key to salamanders (source) .
    3. Record 11 points for correctly completing the lab.
    1. (*)Create a dichotomous key for these creatures.
    2. Name or number the creatures.
    3. Create a couple of descriptions that people can use to identify their creature.
    4. Have someone check several when you are done.
    5. Answering the questions for your creature should lead you to the correct, unique name/number for each creature.
    6. Record your score out of 20 if you were successful.
    1. List the levels of taxonomy for someone in order. Have them check you.
      • Complete the crossword puzzle.
    2. Record 12 points for completion if you knew/found all of the answers. Take off a point for any missing answer.
    3. Read this article about discovering new species. The article is from the Orange County Register, originally published in February of 2006.
    4. Research some newly discovered species. Look for one in the past year. Write a paragraph about it or tell someone about it. Where was it found? How? What is it? What is it related to?
    5. Record up to 10 points for completing today’s assignment (5 for the crossword and 5 for the new species).
    1. Review with this organization of life chart.
    2. Review the vocabulary with flashcards or with games.
    3. Take the quiz.
    4. Record your score out of 10 (deduct a point for each question missed).

    Viruses and Bacteria

    1. *Print out your key terms for this chapter.
    2. Read about bacteria.
    3. Do you remember the parts of a bacteria cell? Review and then take the quiz.
    4. Watch the video on the varying structures of bacteria.
    1. Read about bacteria growth.
    2. Read about bacteria control and benefits.
    3. Make sure to watch the video and use the interactive links.
    1. Complete the Blackout Syndrome (this is a bit gross). Solve the mysteries. Don’t just click on random answers. Your grade is based on how well you can solve the mysteries.
    2. Score 5 points for each solved mystery. Take off a point for each time you guessed incorrectly (potential for 15 points).
    3. Record your score out of 12.
    1. Watch the videos.
    2. Start your lab. Download the student worksheet (on the right). Here’s an alternate link for the worksheet if the one on the website doesn’t work. You can print or type the answers right onto the page. You will finish on Lesson 154.
    1. Read about Typhoid Mary.
    2. Identify the source of the disease. Play as much as you like. Can you complete at least one?
    3. Record 5 points for each of two missions completely accurately (you got all the right answers)
      • OR
    4. After you have played some, write a paragraph about how diseases spread and what should be done to prevent the spread of disease.
    5. Record up to 10 points for a clear introduction and conclusion and details that support your ideas. Make sure both topics are covered.
    1. Read about viruses.
    2. Find two viruses on the scale.
    3. Watch the videos. (click on a language to launch the resource)
    4. Draw a diagram or write the steps of what a virus does and how your body responds.
    1. Read vaccine basics.
    2. Make a vaccine. Click on Printable Version if you can’t do the flash.
    3. Record your score out of 10 for completion.
    1. Complete this crossword puzzle.
    2. Score 1 point for each correct answer. (Do the words all fit together and in the amount of spaces provided?) Take off 1 point for any incorrect or incomplete answer. There should not be incomplete answers.
    3. Record your score out of 24.
    1. Review the words you need to know. You can click on any of the activities to practice the words.
    2. In this quiz you will be given the definitions and you will need to fill in the word.
    3. *Take the quiz.
    4. Check your answers.
    5. Take off 1 point for any wrong answer.
    6. Record your score out of 12.
    7. Prepare for your yeast experiment. You need some flat soda.

    Protists and Fungi

    Lesson 161 (Materials needed: 2, two liter bottles of both water and soda, active dry yeast, 4 identical balloons)

    1. Begin your yeast experiment .
    2. You will be writing up a formal lab. Write up everything except observations/data and conclusion. Create a chart to record your data in.
    3. Here is the lab report template.
    4. Later in the day you will collect data.
    1. Collect data for your experiment.
    2. *Print out your key terms for this chapter. Read through them!
    3. Read about protists.
    1. Watch Protist-The Movie. (It’s going to reference evolution, but there is other information.)
    2. Check out the protist image gallery.
    3. Finish your experiment.
    4. Complete your lab.
    5. Score your lab report according to this rubric. (source–cc by-nc)
    6. Record your score out of 20.
    1. Go through the page on protists and answer the questions.
    2. Check your answers. Record your score out of 27
    1. Go to the Virtual Pond Dip website.
    2. *Fill out this chart for 10 organisms.
    3. Score 20 points for completion.
    4. If you like, you can look at real pond organisms.
    1. Use your notes and complete the crossword puzzle.
    2. Record your score out of 25. Take a 1/2 point off for any missing or incorrect answer.
    1. Learn about angiosperms.
    2. Design a lab to test the factors that affect germination. Write up a lab report as you go.
    1. Answer the questions about flower structure and reproduction.
    2. Check your answers.
    3. Record up to 14 points.
    4. I won’t bring it up again. You’ll be completing your lab with the data you have obtained so far on Lesson 179. You’ll be scored according to this rubric. (source–cc by-nc) Make sure you know what you need to be doing.

      Only if you want to…Dissect a frog. Go to the Internal Anatomy for the dissection. Use the tools in order and do the steps in order to open up the frog. There are more directions below after you click on Next.
        Read “Instructions: Internal anatomy”

    1. Review your study guides and notes from all of your chapters.
    2. Finish your lab report with the information you have so far.
    3. Score your lab report. (source–cc by-nc)
    4. Record your score out of 20.
    1. Take your final exam.
    2. If you skipped a question, go back and try it. You should always at least try. your exam. There should be 97 total points. Add 3 points to your total if you answered every question.
    3. Record your score out of 100.
    4. Congratulations on finishing biology!
    5. Record your final score. Add biology to your transcript. Create a course record for this course. Save your final, labs, other written work and even some screen shots for your portfolio and records.
    6. If you are planning on taking a biology test for college credit, please see the notes below.
    7. Take the polls.

    Grading scale: 90-100 A, 80-89 B, 70-79 C, 60-69 D, < 60 F

    Looking for some extra help with HSC Biology?

    We have an incredible team of HSC Biology History tutors and mentors who are new HSC syllabus experts!

    We can help you master the HSC Biology syllabus and ace your upcoming HSC Biology assessments with personalised lessons conducted one-on-one in your home or at our state of the art campus in Hornsby!

    We’ve supported over 5,000 students over the last 10 years, and on average our students score mark improvements of over 19%!

    To find out more and get started with an inspirational HSC Biology tutor and mentor, get in touch today or give us a ring on 1300 267 888!

    Gia-Yen Luong has been an Art of Smart coach for 3 years, coaching a range of subjects including HSC English, Legal Studies, Biology, Chemistry and General Maths. She is in her final year of a mega double degree in Law/Science (Neuroscience). She graduated high school with an ATAR of 99.9 and spends most of her time trying to convince people that it’s wholly possible to get such a mark while still having a normal life during Year 12. She enjoys reading, podcasts, and making fun resources for her articles.

    Watch the video: Πολλαπλασιασμός Βακτηρίων (June 2022).


  1. Ripley

    Didn't understand very well.

  2. Goltit

    Of course. And I ran into this. Let's discuss this issue. Here or at PM.

  3. Abdul-Nasser

    remarkably, very valuable information

Write a message