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Intermediate Filaments
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Intermediate Filaments

The intermediate filaments are so named because they have an intermediate diameter - about 10 nm - relative to the other two types of protein filaments. In cells lining the outermost layer of the skin, there is a large amount of an intermediate filament type called keratin.

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Sense organs

Have you noticed how many different things our body can do? We can perceive the environment by seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling, tasting. We have received information about our surroundings. By processing them in our brain, we interpret them as danger signs, pleasant or unpleasant sensations, etc.
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Why is your dog so happy when you get home?

Unlike kittens, dogs totally lose their minds when their owners come home after any period away. It is a happiness that does not fit within them. Now experts explain why. To understand the behavior of dogs, we need to understand that they are descended from wolves (or at least have a common ancestor).
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Interesting facts and curiosities about cobras

Among snakes, cobras are the most iconic and intimidating. Her slender posture and "hood" give her an air of elegance and respect in the animal world, not to mention her poisonous sting that could kill a human in a matter of minutes. Luckily, cobras are not found in Brazil. However, in Africa, India, the Middle East, Indonesia and Southeast Asia they are quite common.
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13 Bizarre Baby Facts You Probably Didn't Know

Hard to resist a baby's charms, isn't it? They look so fragile, so sweet and innocent, we don't even suspect that during pregnancy a male fetus had erections, for example. How about the fact that the crying of newborns is not accompanied by tears in the first weeks of life?
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Difference Between Flu and Cold

Flu and cold are not the same disease, even caused by different viruses. Although they have similar symptoms, the flu is more severe than the cold. Usually, it starts with a high fever, followed by muscle pain, sore throat, headache, runny nose and dry cough. The less complicated flu usually gets better within 5 days of the onset of symptoms.
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5 animal skills we'd love to have too

If you could have the skill of any other kind, what would it be? The most obvious, like flying and breathing underwater? Do not rush to make this decision. Let's introduce you to some lesser known but still amazing body functions that animals have (and we'd love to have, too).
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What is H1N1 flu?

New strain of flu is a genetic mix H1N1 or swine flu, as it became known at the beginning of the epidemic, is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease common in pigs. These animals can be infected at the same time by more than one type of virus, allowing the virus genes to mix together.
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Biology Tricks

Biology is a science that studies a broad spectrum of academic fields, often considered independent disciplines. Each area, such as zoology, botany, and embryology, for example, has distinctive nomenclatures. To help students "record" these names, it is common for them to create cheats, phrases, or songs.
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Bathroom Flies: How to Finish Them

They are harmless, do not bite, do not bite, but they bother! And it's no use closing your windows, because they don't come around. Toilet flies (also known as filter flies or drain flies) live in drains, sewers, sumps and sewage-contaminated soil. They feed on all the organic matter that accumulates at these points.
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19 completely absurd and funny science research

Scientists actually do crazy studies from time to time and end up relating things to factors you would never have imagined, such as the link between having good oral hygiene and taking less risk of heart attack. The point is that weirdness and science seem to go hand in hand. Mental Floss has put together a series of completely unusual research.
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Fifteen changes that made us human

Genetic changes in human ancestors have determined "advantages" in modern life. Humans are probably the most curious species ever. We have brains much larger than those of other animals that allow us to build utensils, understand abstract concepts and use language. But we also have few hairs, weak jaws, and are slow to give birth.
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Producers

As examples of producers we have plants and algae, chlorophyllate beings, that do not feed on another living being obtaining from the sun its energy that it needs for photosynthesis. In the process of photosynthesis, plants draw water and minerals from the soil through the roots. In most plants, water is carried to the leaves through small tubes, the conductive vessels of raw sap.
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Ecology

What does ecology study? The Amazon forest has a rich vegetation. And the variety of animals is also huge. It is estimated that in a single tree of the Amazon forest can be found more than a thousand different species of insects. In fact, if we gather all the rainforests of the planet, we will see that there are more than half of the living species in them.
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Protostomados and deuterostomas

The blastopore can give rise to the mouth or anus. When it gives rise to only the mouth or both mouth and anus, animals are called protostomies (proto = first). This is the case of worms, mollusks and arthropods. When the blastopore gives rise to the anus, the animals are called deuterostomies (deutero = posterior).
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Protocooperation

Also called optional mutualism or non-obligatory symbiosis, protocooperation is an optional association between individuals, in which both species benefit, but one can live independently of the other. Eg Sea Anemone and Paguro, cattle and anum (tick cleaning), African crocodile and toothpick (oral hygiene).
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Amensalism

Relationship in which individuals of one species produce toxins that inhibit or impede the development of others. Ex .: Red tide, snake (poison) and man, penicillium fungus (penicillin) and bacteria. Penicillin was discovered in 1928 when Alexander Fleming, in his laboratory at St Mary's Hospital in London, noticed that one of his Staphylococcus cultures had been contaminated with a Penicillium mold, and that there were no bacteria around the fungal colonies.
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Gastrulation

To talk about gastrulation, let's take as an example what happens in chordate animals, represented by amphioxo and frogs. Chordates are animals that have notochord, a flexible rod that sits on the back of the embryo. The notochord persists in the adult of some chordate animals, such as amphioxus.
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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is related to processes involving the exchange and mixing of genetic material between individuals of the same species. Individuals who arise through sexual reproduction resemble their parents, but are not identical with them. This mode of reproduction, while more complex and more costly than asexual reproduction, has great advantages for living beings and is most widely employed by different groups.
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Fertilization Types

Fertilization can be external, when it occurs outside the body, in the environment, or internal, when it occurs in the body of the individual who produces the eggs. Some amphibian species have external fertilization. The male stimulates the female to release the eggs in the environment and the male releases the sperm on top of them.
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